World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Bulldog Drummond

First edition cover of Bulldog Drummond

Bulldog Drummond is a British fictional character, created by H. C. McNeile and published under his pen name "Sapper". After an unsuccessful one-off appearance as a policeman in The Strand Magazine, the character was reworked by McNeile into a gentleman adventurer for his 1920 novel Bulldog Drummond. McNeile went on to write ten Drummond novels, four short stories, four stage plays and a screenplay before his death in 1937. The stories were continued by his friend Gerard Fairlie between 1938 and 1954; further books were published in the 1960s and one in 1983.

Drummond is a First World War veteran, brutalised by his experiences in the trenches and bored with his post-war lifestyle. He publishes an advertisement looking for adventure, and soon finds himself embroiled in a series of exploits, many of which involve Carl Peterson—who becomes his nemesis—and Peterson's mistress, the femme fatale Irma. After his first adventure Drummond marries his client, Phyllis Benton; in later episodes she becomes involved in Drummond's exploits, often as the victim of kidnapping by Drummond's enemies.

In 1921 an adaptation of the first novel was staged in London, with Gerald du Maurier playing the role of Drummond; the play was further adapted and resulted in the 1922 silent film Bulldog Drummond, with Carlyle Blackwell in the lead role. Several other Drummond films have followed, either based on McNeile's stories or with unique storylines.


  • Drummond 1
  • Carl and Irma Peterson 2
  • Reception 3
  • Influences 4
  • Works 5
    • Novels 5.1
    • Stage adaptations 5.2
    • Short stories by McNeile 5.3
    • Films 5.4
    • Radio and television 5.5
  • Notes and references 6
  • Bibliography 7
  • External links 8


"Demobilised officer, ... finding peace incredibly tedious, would welcome diversion. Legitimate, if possible; but crime, if of a comparatively humorous description, no objection. Excitement essential."

Advertisement placed in The Times by Drummond in Bulldog Drummond[1]

The Bulldog Drummond stories of H. C. McNeile follow Captain Hugh "Bulldog" Drummond, DSO, MC. Drummond is a member of "the Breed", a class of Englishman who were patriotic, loyal and "physically and morally intrepid".[2] Drummond is a wealthy gentleman, formerly an officer in the fictional "Royal Loamshire Regiment", who, after the First World War, spends his new-found leisure time looking for adventure. McNeile first wrote the Drummond character as a detective for a short story in The Strand Magazine, but the portrayal was not successful and was changed for the novel Bull-dog Drummond, which was a thriller.[2][1] The character was an amalgam of McNeile's friend Gerard Fairlie, and his idea of an English gentleman,[2] although writer J.D. Bourn disputes Fairlie's claim to be a model for the character, noting that "he was still at school when Sapper created his ... hero".[4] Drummond also had roots in the literary characters Sherlock Holmes, Sexton Blake, Richard Hannay and The Scarlet Pimpernel.[5]

No man's land, where Drummond honed the skills he later used during his exploits

Drummond's wartime experience had given him a series of abilities akin to that of a hunter: stealth—"he could move over ground without a single blade of grass rustling"—and the ability to incapacitate others—"he could kill a man with his bare hands in a second".[6] During his time on the Western Front he would take himself on solitary raids through no man's land.[7] Drummond was also proficient in jujutsu and boxing, was a crack shot,[8] played cricket for the Free Foresters, and was an excellent poker player.[9] In addition to Drummond's physical attributes is his common sense, which allows him to equal and beat his opponents, even if they have a superior intellect.[10]

Drummond is characterised as large, very strong, physically unattractive and an "apparently brainless hunk of a man",[11] He is six feet tall, weighs around 14 stone,[12] and has a "cheerful type of ugliness which inspires immediate confidence in its owner".[13] Throughout his exploits, Drummond is joined by several of his ex-army friends and colleagues, including Algy Longworth (who would appear in many of the films, as Drummond's sidekick), MC; Toby Sinclair, VC;[2] Peter Darrell and Ted Jerningham.[15] Dummond's ex-batman from his military days, James Denny, runs Drummond's flat on Half-Moon Street in Mayfair, London, along with Mrs Denny.[16] Drummond is a gentleman with a private income;[7] he is also be construed as "a brutalized ex-officer whose thirst for excitement is also an attempt to reenact [sic] the war",[17] although the character was later described by Cecil Day-Lewis as an "unspeakable public school bully".[18]

The novel Bulldog Drummond begins when Drummond places an advertisement in a newspaper looking for adventure to lift the ennui of his life in post-war London. The response comes from Phyllis Benton, who is concerned for the health and well-being of her father, over whom Henry Lakington and Carl Peterson have a hold. At the end of the novel Drummond and Phyllis marry, and remain married throughout the course of the McNeile and Fairlie series of books, in contrast to the films, which generally portray Drummond as unmarried.[19] Phyllis becomes integral to the plot of some of the novels: she is kidnapped by Irma Peterson in several stories,[20] including The Black Gang[21] and The Female of the Species.[22]

In the matter of his personal tastes, Drummond is a member of the fictional Junior Sports Club, a gentleman's club on St. James's Square, London.[23] His preferred drink is beer[24] although he also enjoys drinking martinis and is knowledgeable about wines.[25] Drummond owns both a Rolls-Royce and a Bentley.[16]

Although Drummond's actions are intended to maintain the conservative status quo of Britain,[2] academic Hans Bertens considers that instead, he comes across as "a murderous exponent of a fierce competitive individualism".[26]

Carl and Irma Peterson

The first four books deal with Drummond against Carl Peterson, who becomes Drummond's arch-enemy. Peterson is also a master of disguise and uses several aliases. Peterson is killed in the fourth book, The Final Count,[27] although Fairlie brings him back for his final novel, The Return of the Black Gang.[28] Drummond forms a grudging respect for Peterson, and offers an honourable duel to the death at the end of The Third Round, instead of the usual summary justice that normally befalls members of Peterson's gang.[29] The writer Richard Usborne sees Peterson as "quite a sympathetic character. Almost, in fact, a hero",[30] and wrote that "authors ... fall in love with their big villains ... Sapper came to love Carl Peterson dearly, and so did Drummond".[31]

The title of the fifth Bulldog Dummond book, The Female of the Species refers to Rudyard Kipling's line "the female of the species is more deadly than the male".[22] Irma is described by Jonathon Green as "the slinky epitome of a twenties 'vamp'",[32] and by Lawrence Treadwell as dark, sexy and from an oriental background, "a true femme fatale".[33] After Carl Peterson's death in The Final Count, Irma swears revenge on Drummond and kidnaps his wife—whom he had met in Bulldog Drummond—with the intent of killing him in the ensuing chase.[29] Irma Peterson appears in six of McNeile's books, and in a further five by Fairlie.[33][3]


The Drummond series proved popular with contemporary audiences, with Bulldog Drummond selling 396,302 copies between 1920 and 1939, exceeding the 100,000-copy benchmark for "best-sellers".[34] At his peak in the 1920s, McNeile was the highest-paid short story writer in the world,[35] and it was estimated that in the last five years of his life he was earning around £10,000 a year;[36] the Daily Mirror estimated that during his writing career he had earned £85,000.[37]

When reviewing Bulldog Drummond Strikes Back[4] for The New York Times, the critic observed that "if you like a good knock-down-and-drag-out yarn with excitement and violence on nearly every page, you can't go wrong on Bulldog Drummond";[39] for the novel Bulldog Drummond at Bay, the reviewer considered that "as a piece of fictional melodrama, the book is first rate".[40] In the British market, The Times Literary Supplement also characterised McNeile as a mass-market thriller writer, which contrasted with its consideration of his earlier works.[41]

Throughout the Drummond stories, much of the language used by McNeile relating to ethnic minorities or Jews is considered by the academic Joan DelFattore to be "intensely conservative by modern standards";[2] Green observes that while the characters of other contemporary writers, such as Agatha Christie, "exhibit the inevitable xenophobia and anti-semitism of the period, McNeile's go far beyond the 'polite' norms".[32] J.D. Bourn considers his language to be "rather distasteful",[42] while the academic Michael Denning observed that "Drummond is a bundle of chauvinisms, hating Jews, Germans, and most other foreigners".[43] The academic Ion Trewin comments that for the readers of the 1920s and '30s, McNeile was seen at the time as "simply an upstanding Tory who spoke for many of his countrymen".[45]


Drummond later became a model for other literary characters created in the 1940s and '50s:[5] W. E. Johns used McNeile's work as a model for his character Biggles,[46] while Ian Fleming stated that James Bond was "Sapper from the waist up and Mickey Spillane below".[32]



Cover of The Black Gang, the second Drummond novel

All were published through Hodder & Stoughton.

Title Author Date Length
(first edition)
Bull-Dog Drummond H. C. McNeile 1920 320 pp [47][48]
The Black Gang H. C. McNeile 1922 318 pp [49][50]
The Third Round H. C. McNeile 1924 320 pp [51][52]
The Final Count H. C. McNeile 1926 319 pp [53][54]
The Female of the Species H. C. McNeile 1928 312 pp [55][56]
Temple Tower H. C. McNeile 1929 320 pp [57][58]
The Return of Bulldog Drummond H. C. McNeile 1932 316 pp [59][60]
Knock-Out H. C. McNeile 1933 317 pp [61][62]
Bulldog Drummond at Bay H. C. McNeile 1935 310 pp [63][64]
Challenge H. C. McNeile 1937 311 pp [65][66]
Bulldog Drummond on Dartmoor Gerard Fairlie 1938 254 pp [67][68]
Bulldog Drummond Attacks Gerard Fairlie 1939 287 pp [69][70]
Captain Bulldog Drummond Gerard Fairlie 1945 256 pp [71][72]
Bulldog Drummond Stands Fast Gerard Fairlie 1947 319 pp [73][74]
Hands Off Bulldog Drummond Gerard Fairlie 1949 271 pp [75][76]
Calling Bulldog Drummond Gerard Fairlie 1951 255 pp [77][78]
The Return of the Black Gang Gerard Fairlie 1954 192 pp [79][80]
Deadlier Than the Male Henry Reymond[5] 1967 192 pp [81]
Some Girls Do Henry Reymond[6] 1969 192 pp [82]

Drummond has also appeared in other works. In 1983 Jack Smithers wrote Combined Forces,[83][7] and in 1990 Kim Newman—under the name Jack Smithers—wrote the short story "Pitbull Brittan", which features Drummond.[84] Drummond has also appeared in two graphic novels. In 2004 Moonstone Books released a Bulldog Drummond comic book written by William Messner-Loebs and illustrated by Brett Barkley,[85] while in The League of Extraordinary Gentlemen: Black Dossier, written by Alan Moore and illustrated by Kevin O'Neill, a thinly disguised, elderly version of Drummond, called "Hugo Drummond", is one of the three Secret Service agents tasked to hunt down the heroes of the piece.[86]

Stage adaptations

Gerald du Maurier, who first portrayed Drummond on stage in 1921

McNeile and

External links

  • Bertens, Hans (1990). "A Society of Murderers Run on Sound Conservative Lines: The Life and Times of Sapper's Bulldog Drummond". In Bloom, Clive. Twentieth-Century Suspense: The Thriller Comes of Age. Basingstoke:  
  • Bourn, J. D. (October 1990). "Sapper: Creator of Bull-Dog Drummond". The Book and Magazine Collector (Diamond Publishing Group) (79). 
  • DelFattore, Joan (1988). "Herman Cyril McNeile (Sapper)". In  
  • Green, Jonathon (2004). "McNeile, (Herman) Cyril (1888–1937)".   (subscription or UK public library membership required)
  • Jaillant, Lise (2011). "Sapper, Hodder & Stoughton, and the Popular Literature of the Great War".  
  • Johns, Eric (1974). British Theatre Review. Eastbourne: Vance-Offord Publications.  
  • McNeile, H. C. (1920). Bull-Dog Drummond: The Adventures of a Demobilised Officer Who Found Peace Dull. London:  
  • McNeile, H.C.;  
  • Meyer, Jessica (2007). "The Tuition of Manhood: Sapper's War Stories and the Literature of the War". In Hammond, Mary; Towheed, Shafquat. Publishing in the First World War: Essays in Book History. Basingstoke:  
  • Panek, LeRoy (1981). The Special Branch: The British Spy Novel, 1890–1980. Popular Press.  
  • Treadwell, Lawrence P. (2001). The Bulldog Drummond Encyclopedia. Jefferson:  


  1. ^ McNeile 1920, p. 25.
  2. ^ a b c d e DelFattore 1988, p. 223.
  3. ^ "Bulldog Drummond".  
  4. ^ Bourn 1990, p. 31.
  5. ^ a b Panek 1981, p. 78.
  6. ^ McNeile 1920, p. 104.
  7. ^ a b Jaillant 2011, p. 153.
  8. ^ Bourn 1990, p. 28.
  9. ^ Usborne 1983, p. 134.
  10. ^ Bertens 1990, p. 60.
  11. ^ Usborne 1983, p. 150.
  12. ^ a b Treadwell 2001, p. 54.
  13. ^ McNeile 1920, p. 26.
  14. ^ McNeile 1920, p. 127.
  15. ^ Treadwell 2001, p. 55.
  16. ^ a b Treadwell 2001, p. 56.
  17. ^ Jaillant 2011, p. 138.
  18. ^ Watson 1971, p. 69.
  19. ^ Treadwell 2001, pp. 12–13.
  20. ^ Treadwell 2001, p. 57.
  21. ^ Treadwell 2001, p. 15.
  22. ^ a b Treadwell 2001, p. 65.
  23. ^ Treadwell 2001, p. 93.
  24. ^ Bourn 1990, p. 27.
  25. ^ Watson 1971, p. 212.
  26. ^ Bertens 1990, p. 67.
  27. ^ Treadwell 2001, p. 131.
  28. ^ Treadwell 2001, p. 139.
  29. ^ a b DelFattore 1988, p. 225.
  30. ^ Usborne 1983, p. 166.
  31. ^ Usborne 1983, p. 167.
  32. ^ a b c Green 2004.
  33. ^ a b c Treadwell 2001, p. 132.
  34. ^ Meyer 2007, p. 122.
  35. ^  
  36. ^ "War Made 'Sapper' a Writer".  
  37. ^ "Sapper's Books Made £85,000".  
  38. ^ DelFattore 1988, pp. 221–22.
  39. ^ "New Mystery Stories".  
  40. ^ "New Mystery Stories".  
  41. ^ Jaillant 2011, p. 158.
  42. ^ Bourn 1990, p. 26.
  43. ^ Denning 1987, p. 55.
  44. ^ Jaillant 2011, p. 163.
  45. ^ McNeile & Trewin 1983, p. xi: as quoted in [44]
  46. ^ Sutherland 2012, p. 142.
  47. ^ "Bull-Dog Drummond".  
  48. ^ Treadwell 2001, pp. 21–22.
  49. ^ "The Black Gang". British Library catalogue. London:  
  50. ^ Treadwell 2001, pp. 14–15.
  51. ^ "The Third Round". British Library catalogue. London:  
  52. ^ Treadwell 2001, pp. 159–60.
  53. ^ "The Final Count". British Library catalogue. London:  
  54. ^ Treadwell 2001, pp. 66–67.
  55. ^ "The Female of the Species". British Library catalogue. London:  
  56. ^ Treadwell 2001, pp. 65–66.
  57. ^ "Temple Tower". British Library catalogue. London:  
  58. ^ Treadwell 2001, pp. 157–58.
  59. ^ "The Return of Bulldog Drummond". British Library catalogue. London:  
  60. ^ Treadwell 2001, pp. 138–39.
  61. ^ "Knock-Out". British Library catalogue. London:  
  62. ^ Treadwell 2001, pp. 94–95.
  63. ^ "Bulldog Drummond at Bay". British Library catalogue. London:  
  64. ^ Treadwell 2001, pp. 23–24.
  65. ^ "Challenge. A Bulldog Drummond novel". British Library catalogue. London:  
  66. ^ Treadwell 2001, pp. 37–38.
  67. ^ "Bulldog Drummond on Dartmoor". British Library catalogue. London:  
  68. ^ a b Treadwell 2001, pp. 27–28.
  69. ^ "Bulldog Drummond Attacks". British Library catalogue. London:  
  70. ^ Treadwell 2001, pp. 25–26.
  71. ^ "Captain Bulldog Drummond".  
  72. ^ Treadwell 2001, pp. 34–35.
  73. ^ "Bulldog Drummond Stands Fast". British Library catalogue. London:  
  74. ^ Treadwell 2001, pp. 28–29.
  75. ^ "Hands Off Bulldog Drummond". British Library catalogue. London:  
  76. ^ Treadwell 2001, pp. 79–80.
  77. ^ "Calling Bulldog Drummond". British Library catalogue. London:  
  78. ^ Treadwell 2001, p. 33.
  79. ^ "The Return of the Black Gang". British Library catalogue. London:  
  80. ^ Treadwell 2001, pp. 139–40.
  81. ^ a b "Deadlier than the Male". British Library catalogue. London:  
  82. ^ a b "Some Girls Do". British Library catalogue. London:  
  83. ^ "Combined forces". British Library catalogue. London:  
  84. ^ Hardy 1997, p. 117.
  85. ^ "Bulldog Drummond: War Games".  
  86. ^ "The League of Extraordinary Gentlemen: Black Dossier".  
  87. ^ DelFattore 1988, p. 224.
  88. ^ a b Treadwell 2001, p. 23.
  89. ^ a b Treadwell 2001, p. 182.
  90. ^ a b DelFattore 1988, p. 226.
  91. ^ Treadwell 2001, pp. 26–27.
  92. ^ Johns 1974, p. 99.
  93. ^ Treadwell 2001, p. 121.
  94. ^ a b Treadwell 2001, p. 125.
  95. ^ Treadwell 2001, p. 160.
  96. ^ "Bulldog Drummond – Het Geheimzinnige Sanatorium (1922)". Film & TV Database.  
  97. ^ "The Third Round (1925)". Film & TV Database.  
  98. ^ "Bulldog Drummond (1929)". Film & TV Database.  
  99. ^ "Temple Tower". AFI Catalog.  
  100. ^ "The Return of Bulldog Drummond (1934)". Film & TV Database.  
  101. ^ "Bulldog Drummond Strikes Back (1934)". Film & TV Database.  
  102. ^ a b "Bulldog Jack (1935)". Film & TV Database.  
  103. ^ "Bulldog Drummond Escapes (1937)". Film & TV Database.  
  104. ^ "Bulldog Drummond at Bay (1937)". Film & TV Database.  
  105. ^ "Bulldog Drummond Comes Back (1937)". Film & TV Database.  
  106. ^ "Bulldog Drummond's Revenge (1938)". Film & TV Database.  
  107. ^ "Bulldog Drummond's Peril (1938)". Film & TV Database.  
  108. ^ "Bulldog Drummond in Africa (1938)". Film & TV Database.  
  109. ^ "Arrest Bulldog Drummond (1938)". Film & TV Database.  
  110. ^ "Bulldog Drummond's Secret Police (1939)". Film & TV Database.  
  111. ^ "Bulldog Drummond's Bride (1939)". Film & TV Database.  
  112. ^ "Bulldog Drummond at Bay (1947)". Film & TV Database.  
  113. ^ "Bulldog Drummond Strikes Back (1947)". Film & TV Database.  
  114. ^ "the Challenge (1948)". Film & TV Database.  
  115. ^ "13 Lead Soldiers (1948)". Film & TV Database.  
  116. ^ "Calling Bulldog Drummond (1951)". Film & TV Database.  
  117. ^ "Deadlier Than the Male (1966)". Film & TV Database.  
  118. ^ "Some Girls Do (1969)". Film & TV Database.  
  119. ^ British Film Production The Times 01/Feb/1933
  120. ^ Chandler, Charlotte It's Only a Movie: Alfred Hitchcock A Personal Biography Simon and Schuster, 9 Dec 2008
  121. ^ Dunning 1998, p. 123.
  122. ^ "Douglas Fairbanks Jr. Presents: The Ludlow Affair (1956)". Film & TV Database.  
  123. ^ Radio Times: 74–79. 6–12 October 1973. 


  1. ^ The novel was first published as Bull-Dog Drummond, with a hyphen, but was later changed to Bulldog.[3]
  2. ^ The VC is "a good one", according to Drummond.[14]
  3. ^ The six Drummond novels with Irma Peterson are: Bulldog Drummond (1920), The Black Gang (1922), The Third Round (1924), The Final Count (1926), The Female of the Species (1928) and The Return of Bulldog Drummond (1932).[33]
  4. ^ The novel was first published in the UK under the title Knock-Out and had been renamed Bulldog Drummond Strikes Back for the US market.[38]
  5. ^ From an original story by Jimmy Sangster.[81]
  6. ^ Based on the film script by David Osborne and Liz Charles-Williams.[82]
  7. ^ Subtitled being the latter-day adventures of Maj-Gen Sir Richard Hannay, Captain Hugh 'Bulldog' Drummond and Berry and Co.
  8. ^ Screenplay was by McNeile, Fairlie, J.O.C. Orton and Sidney Gilliat.[102]


Notes and references

A Cedric Hardwicke took over in 1954.[121] A 30-minute episode of Douglas Fairbanks, Jr., Presents featured Drummond in "The Ludlow Affair", first broadcast on UK television on 16 December 1956. Drummond was played by Robert Beatty; he was aided by Kelly, played by Michael Ripper.[122] A 1973 BBC documentary Omnibus, "The British Hero", featured Christopher Cazenove playing Drummond, as well as a number of other such heroic characters, including Richard Hannay, Beau Geste and James Bond.[123]

Radio and television

In 1933 Alfred Hitchcock was set to direct a Bulldog Drummond film[119] with a screenplay by Charles Bennett entitled Bulldog Drummond's Baby. The rights to the character of Drummond were then held by British International Pictures who would not sell the rights to use the character's for Bennett's screenplay. Bennett and Hitchcock turned the film into The Man Who Knew Too Much without Drummond.[120]

Title Release Drummond Director Refs.
Bulldog Drummond 1922 Carlyle Blackwell Oscar Apfel [96]
The Third Round 1925 Jack Buchanan Sidney Morgan [97]
Bulldog Drummond 1929 Ronald Colman F. Richard Jones [98]
Temple Tower 1930 Kenneth MacKenna Donald Gallaher [99]
The Return of Bulldog Drummond 1934 Ralph Richardson Walter Summers [100]
Bulldog Drummond Strikes Back 1934 Ronald Colman Roy Del Ruth [101]
Bulldog Jack[8] 1935 Atholl Fleming Walter Forde [102]
Bulldog Drummond Escapes 1937 Ray Milland James P. Hogan [103]
Bulldog Drummond at Bay 1937 John Lodge Norman Lee [104]
Bulldog Drummond Comes Back 1937 John Howard Louis King [105]
Bulldog Drummond's Revenge 1937/38 John Howard Louis King [106]
Bulldog Drummond's Peril 1938 John Howard James P. Hogan [107]
Bulldog Drummond in Africa 1938 John Howard Louis King [108]
Arrest Bulldog Drummond 1939 John Howard James P. Hogan [109]
Bulldog Drummond's Secret Police 1939 John Howard James P. Hogan [110]
Bulldog Drummond's Bride 1939 John Howard James P. Hogan [111]
Bulldog Drummond at Bay 1947 Ron Randell Sidney Salkow [112]
Bulldog Drummond Strikes Back 1947 Ron Randell Roy Del Ruth [113]
The Challenge 1948 Tom Conway Jean Yarbrough [114]
13 Lead Soldiers 1948 Tom Conway Frank McDonald [115]
Calling Bulldog Drummond 1951 Walter Pidgeon Victor Saville [116]
Deadlier Than the Male 1967 Richard Johnson Ralph Thomas [117]
Some Girls Do 1969 Richard Johnson Ralph Thomas [118]
Lobby card for Bulldog Drummond (1922)
Poster for the 1922 film Bulldog Drummond, based on McNeile's play of the same name


Title Date Earliest publication Refs.
"The Mystery Tour" February 1937 The Strand Magazine [93]
"Lonely Inn" August 1937 The Strand Magazine [12]
"The Oriental Mind" October 1937 The Strand Magazine [94]
"Wheels Within Wheels" November 1937 The Strand Magazine [94]
"Thirteen Lead Soldiers" December 1937 The Strand Magazine [95]

Short stories by McNeile

In 1974 the play Bullshot Crummond, by Ron House, was staged with Alan Shearman as Crummond.[92] The play was subsequently made into the 1983 film Bullshot.

[68], published in 1938.Bulldog Drummond on Dartmoor Fairlie later turned the storyline into the novel [91][90], London, where it had a short run.Savoy Theatre as Drummond, and opened on 21 December 1937 at the Henry Edwards, was co-written by McNeile and Fairlie. It went on a tour of the UK in 1937 with Bulldog Drummond Hits Out A third Drummond play, [89][90] as Drummond.Ian Hunter, London in January 1930 with Comedy Theatre, which was staged at the The Way Out McNeile also wrote [88] as Drummond.A. E. Matthews The play also ran in New York during the same season, with [89]

This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from School eBook Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.