World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

79th Academy Awards

79th Academy Awards
Official poster
Date February 25, 2007
Site Kodak Theatre
Hollywood, Los Angeles, California, U.S.
Host Ellen DeGeneres[1]
Pre-show Chris Connelly
Lisa Ling[2]
André Leon Talley[3]
Allyson Waterman[4]
Producer Laura Ziskin[5]
Director Louis J. Horvitz[6]
Best Picture The Departed
Most awards The Departed (4)
Most nominations Dreamgirls (8)
TV in the United States
Network ABC
Duration 3 hours, 51 minutes[7]
Ratings 39.92 million
23.59% (Nielsen ratings)[8]
 < 78th Academy Awards 80th > 

The 79th Academy Awards ceremony, presented by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS), honored the best films of 2006 and took place February 25, 2007, at the Kodak Theatre in Hollywood, Los Angeles beginning at 5:30 p.m. PST / 8:30 p.m. EST. During the ceremony, the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences presented Academy Awards (commonly referred to as Oscars) in 24 categories. The ceremony, televised in the United States by ABC, was produced by Laura Ziskin and directed by Louis J. Horvitz. Talk show host Ellen DeGeneres hosted for the first time.[9] Two weeks earlier in a ceremony at the Beverly Wilshire Hotel in Beverly Hills, California held on February 10, the Academy Awards for Technical Achievement were presented by host Maggie Gyllenhaal.[10]

The Departed won four awards, including Best Picture and Best Director for Martin Scorsese.[11][12] Other winners included Pan's Labyrinth with three, An Inconvenient Truth, Dreamgirls, and Little Miss Sunshine with two, and Babel, The Blood of Yingzhou District, The Danish Poet, Happy Feet, The Last King of Scotland, Letters from Iwo Jima, The Lives of Others, Marie Antoinette, Pirates of the Caribbean: Dead Man's Chest, The Queen, and West Bank Story with one. The telecast garnered nearly 40 million viewers in the United States.


  • Winners and nominees 1
    • Awards 1.1
    • Honorary Academy Award 1.2
    • Jean Hersholt Humanitarian Award 1.3
    • Multiple nominations and award 1.4
  • Presenters and performers 2
    • Presenters (in order of appearance) 2.1
    • Performers (in order of appearance) 2.2
  • Ceremony information 3
    • Box office performance of nominated films 3.1
    • Critical reviews 3.2
    • Ratings and reception 3.3
  • In Memoriam 4
  • See also 5
  • References 6
  • Bibliography 7
  • External links 8

Winners and nominees

The nominees for the 79th Academy Awards were announced on January 23, 2007, at the Samuel Goldwyn Theater in Beverly Hills, California, by Sid Ganis, president of the Academy, and the actress Salma Hayek.[13] Dreamgirls received the most nominations with eight, and Babel came in second with seven.[14] This marked the first and only occurrence that the film with the most nominations was not a Best Picture nominee.[15]

The winners were announced during the awards ceremony on February 25, 2007.[16] With his latest unsuccessful nomination for Best Actor, Peter O'Toole became the most nominated performer without a competitive win.[17] Best Supporting Actress winner Jennifer Hudson was the fifteenth Oscar acting winner to win for a debut film performance.[18] "I Need to Wake Up" from An Inconvenient Truth became the first song from a documentary film to win Best Original Song.[19]


Headshot of a Caucasian male with thick rimmed glasses. He is wearing a black suit over a white shirt with a green tie.
Martin Scorsese, Best Director winner

Portrait of an African-American male facing toward his right shoulder. He is wearing a black suit and an unbuttoned white collar shirt.
Forest Whitaker, Best Actor winner

Upper torso of a female wearing white shirt. She is seen with a microphone and a plastic bottle in front of her.
Helen Mirren, Best Actress winner

A Caucasian male wearing a black suit and tie with a white collar shirt is seen waving his right hand. He is standing next to a blonde female wearing a green dress.
Alan Arkin, Best Supporting Actor winner

Headshot of an African-American female in her late twenties holding her Oscar statuette
Jennifer Hudson, Best Supporting Actress winner

A blond haired female wearing a white jacket is seen smiling.
Melissa Etheridge, Best Original Song winner

A photo of a bearded, black haired Mexican male with sitting with his hands clasped over his knee. He is wearing a black shirt and black pants.
Guillermo Navarro, Best Cinematography winner

Winners are listed first and indicated with a double-dagger (double-dagger).[20]

Best Picture Best Director
Best Actor Best Actress
Best Supporting Actor Best Supporting Actress
Best Original Screenplay Best Adapted Screenplay
Best Animated Feature Best Foreign Language Film
Best Documentary Feature Best Documentary Short
Best Live Action Short Best Animated Short
Best Original Score Best Original Song
Best Sound Editing Best Sound Mixing
Best Art Direction Best Cinematography
Best Makeup Best Costume Design
Best Film Editing Best Visual Effects

Honorary Academy Award

Jean Hersholt Humanitarian Award

Multiple nominations and award

Presenters and performers

The following individuals presented awards or performed musical numbers.[23]

Presenters (in order of appearance)

Name(s) Role
LaFontaine, DonDon LaFontaine
Gina Tuttle
Announcers for the 79th annual Academy Awards
Craig, DanielDaniel Craig
Nicole Kidman
Presenters of the award for Best Art Direction
Gyllenhaal, MaggieMaggie Gyllenhaal Presenter of the segment of the Academy Awards for Technical Achievement and Gordon E. Sawyer Award
Black, JackJack Black
Will Ferrell
John C. Reilly
Presenters of the award for Best Makeup
Breslin, AbigailAbigail Breslin
Jaden Smith
Presenters of the awards for Best Animated Short Film and Best Live Action Short Film
Carell, SteveSteve Carell
Greg Kinnear
Presenters of the award for Best Sound Editing
Biel, JessicaJessica Biel
James McAvoy
Presenters of the award for Best Sound Mixing
Weisz, RachelRachel Weisz Presenter of the award for Best Supporting Actor
DiCaprio, LeonardoLeonardo DiCaprio
Al Gore
Gave a special announcement regarding the Academy's plans to help the environment
Diaz, CameronCameron Diaz Presenter of the award for Best Animated Feature
Affleck, BenBen Affleck Presenter of the "Tribute to Screenwriters" montage by Nancy Meyers
Hanks, TomTom Hanks
Helen Mirren
Presenter of the award for Best Adapted Screenplay
Blunt, EmilyEmily Blunt
Anne Hathaway
Presenter of the award for Best Costume Design
Cruise, TomTom Cruise Presenter of the Jean Hersholt Humanitarian Award to Sherry Lansing
Paltrow, GwynethGwyneth Paltrow Presenter of the award for Best Cinematography
Downey, Jr., RobertRobert Downey, Jr.
Naomi Watts
Presenters of the award for Best Visual Effects
Deneuve, CatherineCatherine Deneuve
Ken Watanabe
Presenters of the "60 Years of Best Foreign Language Film Winners" montage by Giuseppe Tornatore
Blanchett, CateCate Blanchett
Clive Owen
Presenters of the award for Best Foreign Language Film
Clooney, GeorgeGeorge Clooney Presenter of the award for Best Supporting Actress
Bernal, Gael GarcíaGael García Bernal
Eva Green
Presenters of the award for Best Documentary Short Subject
Seinfeld, JerryJerry Seinfeld Presenter of the award for Best Documentary Feature
Eastwood, ClintClint Eastwood Presenter of the Academy Honorary Award to Ennio Morricone
Cruz, PenélopePenélope Cruz
Hugh Jackman
Presenters of the award for Best Original Score
Ganis, SidSid Ganis (AMPAS president) Presenter of a montage highlighting the Academy's preservation and educational work
Dunst, KirstenKirsten Dunst
Tobey Maguire
Presenters of the award for Best Original Screenplay
Lopez, JenniferJennifer Lopez Introducer of the performances of Best Song nominees "Love You I Do", "Listen", and "Patience"
Latifah, QueenQueen Latifah
John Travolta
Presenters of the award for Best Original Song
Smith, WillWill Smith Introduced a montage of films dealing with American politics by Michael Mann
Winslet, KateKate Winslet Presenter of the award for Best Film Editing
Foster, JodieJodie Foster Presenter of the In Memoriam tribute
Hoffman, Philip SeymourPhilip Seymour Hoffman Presenter of the award for Best Actress
Witherspoon, ReeseReese Witherspoon Presenter of the award for Best Actor
Coppola, Francis FordFrancis Ford Coppola
George Lucas
Steven Spielberg
Presenters of the award for Best Director
Keaton, DianeDiane Keaton
Jack Nicholson
Presenters of the award for Best Picture

Performers (in order of appearance)

Name(s) Role Performed
William RossWilliam Ross Musical arranger Orchestral
PilobolusPilobolus Performers Interpretive depictions of films' titles and logos
Black, JackJack Black
Will Ferrell
John C. Reilly
Performers "Comedian at the Oscars"
Steve SidwellSteve Sidwell
Sound Effects Choir
Performers "Elements & Motion" film sound effects performance
Newman, RandyRandy Newman
James Taylor
Performers "Our Town" from Cars
Etheridge, MelissaMelissa Etheridge Performer "I Need to Wake Up" from An Inconvenient Truth
Dion, CelineCeline Dion Performer "I Knew I Loved You" during the Ennio Morricone tribute
Hudson, JenniferJennifer Hudson
Beyoncé Knowles
Performers "Love You I Do" from Dreamgirls
Hudson, JenniferJennifer Hudson
Beyoncé Knowles
Performers "Listen" from Dreamgirls
Hudson, JenniferJennifer Hudson
Beyoncé Knowles
Keith Robinson
Anika Noni Rose
Performers "Patience" from Dreamgirls

Ceremony information

Headshot of a blond haired female in her early fifties wearing a blue jacket over blue and white shirts.
Ellen DeGeneres hosted the 79th Academy Awards

Because of the declining viewership of recent Academy Awards ceremonies, the Academy sought ideas to revamp the show while renewing interest with the nominated films. In September 2006, the Academy selected producer Laura Ziskin to oversee production of the telecast for a second time.[24] Nearly three months later, actress and comedienne Ellen DeGeneres, who had previously emceed three Primetime Emmy Award ceremonies between 2001 and 2005, was chosen as host of the 2007 ceremony.[25] In an article published in the Los Angeles Times, Ziskin explained the decision to hire DeGeneres saying "Certainly, I believe the presence of Ellen will help the ratings absolutely. She's popular with a very wide audience. She is not a niche performer. She touches a lot of demographics."[26]

AMPAS christened this year's telecast with a theme celebrating movie quotes.[27] In tandem with the theme, advertising agency TBWA\Chiat\Day designed the official ceremony poster featuring 75 quotes from several Oscar-nominated or winning films.[28] To stir interest surrounding the awards, filmmaker Spike Lee released a trailer featuring everyday people around New York City reciting famous film lines.[27] During the ceremony, a montage produced by director Nancy Meyers saluted the work of screenwriters and their contributions to film.[29][30]

During the telecast, former Super Bowl) is a celebration of film."[46] The Washington Post columnist Tom Shales gave an average review for DeGeneres but criticized the overall slow and choppy pacing of the program noting that it was "punishingly too long."[47]

Other media outlets received the broadcast more positively. Columnist Alessandra Stanley of The New York Times lauded DeGeneres's performance writing that she was "cheeky but good-natured, far less barbed and sardonic than Jon Stewart last year or Chris Rock in 2005." She added that her style brought a "casual Friday mood to Fancy Sunday."[48] St. Louis Post-Dispatch television critic Gail Pennington praised host DeGeneres and producer Ziskin for turning "the evening into an upbeat celebration––and the most entertaining Oscars in years."[49] Television editor Dave Kronke of the Los Angeles Daily News gave high marks for DeGeneres commenting, "Her material was amusing but scarcely a laugh riot, yet it was amiable and delineated that the evening was a celebration of all the nominees, not just the winners."[50]

Ratings and reception

The American telecast on ABC drew in an average of 39.92 million people over its length, which was a 2.5% increase from the previous year's ceremony.[51][52] An estimated 76.72 million total viewers watched all or part of the awards.[8] The show also drew higher Nielsen ratings compared to the previous ceremony with 23.59% of households watching over a 38.86 share.[53] In addition, the program scored a higher 18-49 demo rating with a 14.18 rating over a 33.71 share among viewers in that demographic.[54]

In July 2007, the ceremony presentation received nine nominations at the 59th Primetime Emmys.[55] Two months later, the ceremony won two of those nominations for Outstanding Art Direction (J. Michael Riva, Geoffrey Richman, and Tamlyn Wright) and Outstanding Music Direction (William Ross).[56][57]

In Memoriam

The annual In Memoriam tribute, presented by actress Jodie Foster, honored the following people:[58]

Before the montage was shown, Foster briefly eulogized casting director and Oscar winner Randy Stone who died nearly two weeks before the ceremony.[59]

See also


  1. ^ Keller, Joel (September 7, 2006). "Ellen DeGeneres to host the 2007 Oscars - BREAKING NEWS".  
  2. ^ Slezak, Michael (February 25, 2007). "Live-blogging ABC's Oscar pre-show telecast".  
  3. ^ "André Leon Talley Named Oscar Pre-show Host".  
  4. ^ a b Thompson, Toni (February 5, 2007). "Allyson Waterman Named Co-host of "Road to the Oscars(R)" and Host of". Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS). Archived from the original on April 20, 2007. Retrieved February 3, 2014. 
  5. ^ "Laura Ziskin returns as Oscars show producer".  
  6. ^ Lindeen, Julie (December 20, 2006). "Horvitz at Oscar helm again".  
  7. ^ Lowry, Brian (February 25, 2007). """Review: "The 79th Annual Academy Awards. Variety (PMC). Retrieved July 18, 2013. 
  8. ^ a b Finke, Nikki. "UPDATE: 39.9 Million Watch 79th Oscars".  
  9. ^ "Ellen, meet Oscar". USA Today (Gannett Company). September 7, 2008. Retrieved February 16, 2014. 
  10. ^ Rich, Joshua (February 7, 2007). "Maggie G. Hosts Sci/Tech Oscars". Entertainment Weekly (TimeWarner). Retrieved July 18, 2013. 
  11. ^ Halbfinger, David M.; Waxman, Sharon (February 26, 2014). The Departed' Wins Best Picture, Scorsese Best Director"'".  
  12. ^ "At Long Last, Scorsese Wins Oscar".  
  13. ^ Stein, Ruthe (January 22, 2007). "Sure, the film business is cutthroat, but it also has heart, says industry leader Sid Ganis, who seems to have a lot of heart himself".  
  14. ^ Kaufman, Gil (January 23, 2007). Dreamgirls' Leads Oscar Noms — Without Best Picture Or Beyonce"'".  
  15. ^ Rea, Steven (January 24, 2007). "Oscar hugs and shrugs The Academy Award nominations show unusual diversity this year and, in the case of "Dreamgirls," an oddity. Oscar is doing his part for diversity".  
  16. ^ "Nominees & Winners for the 79th Academy Awards".  
  17. ^ "Peter O'Toole".  
  18. ^ Montgomery, Daniel (January 24, 2014). "Will Lupita Nyongo and Barkhad Abdi join 15 Oscar winners for film debuts?". Gold Derby. Retrieved January 31, 2014. 
  19. ^ "The 79th Academy Awards (2007) Memorable Moments". Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS). Retrieved February 14, 2014. 
  20. ^ "The 79th Academy Awards (2007) Nominees and Winners". Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS). Retrieved November 18, 2011. 
  21. ^ Campbell, Christopher (December 14, 2006). "Ennio Morricone Finally Gets an Oscar".  
  22. ^ Lindeen, Julie (December 14, 2006). "Honorary Oscar to Lansing". Variety (PMC). Retrieved February 1, 2014. 
  23. ^ "79th Academy Awards Presenters and Performers". Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. AMPAS. Archived from the original on February 26, 2007. Retrieved June 5, 2013. 
  24. ^ Archerd, Army (July 20, 2006). "Oscar gig for Ziskin". Variety (PMC). Retrieved February 3, 2014. 
  25. ^ Vries, Lloyd (September 8, 2006). "Ellen DeGeneres to Host the Oscars". CBS News (CBS Corporation). Retrieved February 3, 2014. 
  26. ^ Welkos, Robert W. (September 9, 2006). "Everybody likes Ellen, especially Oscar". Los Angeles Times (Tribune Company). Retrieved February 3, 2014. 
  27. ^ a b "Movie Quotes Line the Road to Oscars". Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS). January 25, 2007. Archived from the original on April 20, 2007. Retrieved February 17, 2014. 
  28. ^ Sneider, Jeff (December 19, 2006). "Oscar poster lines 'em up". Variety (PMC). Retrieved February 17, 2014. 
  29. ^ White, Dave (February 26, 2007). "'"Oscars: Even more bloated than 'Idol.  
  30. ^ Fernandez, Jay A. (February 28, 2007). "A step toward recognizing where it starts". Los Angeles Times (Tribune Company). Retrieved February 17, 2014. 
  31. ^ "Natural Resources Defense Council "Greens" the Academy Awards".  
  32. ^ Puente, Maria (February 14, 2007). "It's stylish, it's lavish, it's ... the greenroom?". USA Today (Gannett Company). Retrieved February 2014. 
  33. ^ Faber, Judy (February 26, 2007). "No Statue, But A Win Nonetheless For Gore". CBS News (CBS Corporation). Retrieved February 17, 2014. 
  34. ^ Sneider, Jeff (February 20, 2007). "Black, Keaton added to Oscars". Variety (PMC). Retrieved February 1, 2014. 
  35. ^ Repstad, Laura (December 28, 2006). "Riva tapped as production designer". Variety (PMC). Retrieved February 1, 2014. 
  36. ^ Terrance 2013, p. 14
  37. ^ Keck, William (February 22, 2007). "A star is born in shape- shifting Pilobolus". USA Today (Gannett Company). Retrieved February 3, 2014. 
  38. ^ Apatow, Judd (July 9, 2007). "Apatow recalls working with Shaiman". Variety (PMC). Retrieved February 17, 2014. 
  39. ^ "Composer | Steve Sidwell".  
  40. ^ Thompson, Anne (February 23, 2007). "Morris cuts it close with his Oscar docu".  
  41. ^ Susman, Gary (February 27, 2007). "Oscars '07: 10 Memorable Moments". Entertainment Weekly (Time Warner). Retrieved February 14, 2014. 
  42. ^ Kennedy, Lisa (February 26, 2007). "An icon gets his due, but not for best work".  
  43. ^ a b "2006 Academy Award Nominations and Winner for Best Picture".  
  44. ^ a b "2007 Domestic Grosses (as of January 23, 2007)". Box Office Mojo ( Retrieved April 16, 2007. 
  45. ^ Goodman, Tim (February 25, 2007). "Departed evening of bloated, boring Hollywood babble".  
  46. ^ Ostrow, Joanne (February 26, 2007). "Mediocre Ellen lowers telecast to daytime". The Denver Post (MediaNews Group). Retrieved February 6, 2014. 
  47. ^ Shales, Tom (February 26, 2007). "The Broadcast: Long and Longer".  
  48. ^ Stanley, Alessandra (February 25, 2007). "Bringing a Touch of Daytime to Hollywood's Biggest Night". The New York Times (The New York Times Company). Retrieved February 3, 2014. 
  49. ^ Pennington, Gail (February 26, 2007). "DeGeneres kept the Oscar show upbeat and lively".  
  50. ^ Kronke, David (February 26, 2007). "Yep, She's Funny Gentle Humor wins for DeGeneres".  
  51. ^ Gorman, Bill (March 8, 2010). "Academy Awards Averages 41.3 Million Viewers; Most Since 2005". TVbytheNumbers. Archived from the original on 10 March 2010. Retrieved March 12, 2010. 
  52. ^ Rich, Joshua (February 27, 2007). "A few lingering Oscar curiosities". Entertainment Weekly (Time Warner). Retrieved January 31, 2014. 
  53. ^ "Academy Awards ratings" (PDF).  
  54. ^ Gough, Paul J. (February 28, 2007). "Strong week for ABC, but 'Idol' lifts Fox". The Hollywood Reporter (Prometheus Global Media). Retrieved January 31, 2014. 
  55. ^ "Primetime Emmy Award Database".  
  56. ^ "Emmy Winners List". CBS News (CBS Corporation). September 16, 2007. Retrieved July 17, 2013. 
  57. ^ "The complete list of winners". Los Angeles Times (Tribune Company). September 17, 2007. Retrieved February 1, 2014. 
  58. ^ Kirschling, Gregory (February 26, 2007). "Live-blogging the Oscars, baby!". Entertainment Weekly (Time Warner). Retrieved February 1, 2014. 
  59. ^ Harada, Wayne (March 22, 2007). "Randy Stone, award-winning producer, 48".  


  • Terrance, Vincent (2013). Television Specials: 5,336 Entertainment Programs, 1936–2012 (2nd ed.). Jefferson, North Carolina, United States:  

External links

News resources
  • 2006 Academy Awards Winners and History Filmsite
  • Academy Awards, USA: 2007 Internet Movie Database
Other resources
  • Pronunciation Guide to the 79th Academy Award Nominees
  • The 79th Annual Academy Awards at the Internet Movie Database
The show received a mixed reception from media publications. Some media outlets were more critical of the show. Tim Goodman of the

Critical reviews

Of the top 50 grossing movies of the year, 29 nominations went to nine films on the list. Only The Pursuit of Happyness (12th), Borat: Cultural Learnings of America for Make Benefit Glorious Nation of Kazakhstan (15th), The Devil Wears Prada (16th), The Departed (17th), and Dreamgirls (28th) were nominated for Best Picture, Best Animated Feature, or any of the directing, acting, or screenwriting awards.[44] The other top 50 box office hits that earned nominations were Pirates of the Caribbean: Dead Man's Chest (1st), Cars (2nd), Superman Returns (6th), and Happy Feet (8th).[44]

At the time of the nominations announcement on January 23, the combined gross of the five Best Picture nominees was $244 million with an average of $48.7 million per film.[43] The Departed was the highest earner among the Best Picture nominees with $121.7 million in domestic box office receipts. The film was followed by Little Miss Sunshine ($59.6 million), The Queen ($35.6 million), Babel ($23.7 million), and finally Letters from Iwo Jima ($2.4 million).[43]

Box office performance of nominated films

Several other people participated in the production of the ceremony. William Ross served as musical director for the ceremony.[34] J. Michael Riva designed a new set and stage design for the ceremony.[35] Voice actor Don LaFontaine was hired with Gina Tuttle as announcers for the telecast.[36] Actor Greg Vaughan and Lucky columnist Allyson Waterman co-hosted "Road to the Oscars", a weekly behind-the-scenes video blog on the Oscar ceremony website.[4] Members of the dance troupe and contortionist group Pilobolus performed interpretive shadow figures representing scenes and logos from the nominated films.[37] Actors Jack Black, Will Ferrell, and John C. Reilly performed a lighthearted musical number written by comedic director Judd Apatow and music composer Marc Shaiman satirizing comedy's lack of recognition at the Academy Awards.[38] Conducted by musician Steve Sidwell, the Sound Effects Choir performed voice effects to a montage of classic films.[39] Another vignette directed by documentary fimmaker Errol Morris featuring several Oscar nominees discussing what it means to be an Oscar nominee was shown at the beginning of the show.[40] Italian director Giuseppe Tornatore assembled a tribute highlighting previous winners of the Best Foreign Language Film.[41] Filmmaker Michael Mann produced a montage highlighting American life through the eyes of cinema.[42]

[33], usage of recyclable paper for ballots and invitations, and serving meals at the Governor's Ball on reusable plates and biodegradable dishware.hybrid electric vehicles Other eco-friendly features included the transportation for guests of the awards via [32]

This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from School eBook Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.