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Chain gang

A chain gang in the southern US, circa 1903
Chain gang of juvenile convicts in the US, circa 1903
1894 illustration of chain gang performing manual labor
Chain gang street sweepers, Washington, D. C. 1909
Female convicts in Dar es Salaam chained together by their necks, c. 1890–1927

A chain gang is a group of prisoners

  • Movie of chain gang in Charleston, South Carolina; circa 1904
  • The Labour of Doing Time

External links

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  13. ^ Chain Gang (1950) Turner Classic Movies


  • Burns, Robert E. I Am a Fugitive from a Georgia Chain Gang! University of Georgia Press; Brown Thrasher Ed edition (October 1997; original copyright, late 1920s). ISBN 0-8203-1943-0. Autobiography on which movie of the same name was based; best-seller responsible for exposing abuses of Southern chain gang system to national readership, leading to their termination.
  • Colvin, Mark. Penitentiaries, Reformatories, and Chain Gangs: Social Theory and the History of Punishment in Nineteenth-Century America. Palgrave Macmillan (2000). ISBN 0-312-22128-2.
  • Foucault, Michel. Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison. Vintage Books (1979). ISBN 0-394-72767-3.
  • Lichtenstein, Alex. Twice the Work of Free Labor: The Political Economy of Convict Labor in the New South. Verso (1995). ISBN 1-85984-086-8.
  • Mancini, Matthew J. One Dies, Get Another: Convict Leasing in the American South, 1866–1928. University of South Carolina Press (1996). ISBN 1-57003-083-9.
  • Oshinsky, David M. Worse than Slavery: Parchman Farm and the Ordeal of Jim Crow Justice. (1997). ISBN 0-684-83095-7.
  • Curtin, Mary Ellen. Black Prisoners and Their World : Alabama, 1865–1900. University of Virginia Press (2000). ISBN 0-8139-1984-3

Further reading

See also

In popular media

Tim Hudak, former leader of the Progressive Conservative Party of Ontario in Canada, campaigned on introducing penal labour in the province, referred to by many as chain gangs.[12] He lost seats to the provincial Liberals which formed another majority government in the subsequent general election.

A year after reintroducing the chain gang in 1995, Alabama was forced to again abandon the practice pending a lawsuit from, among other organizations, the [11]

Several jurisdictions in the United States have re-introduced prison labor. In recent years, Maricopa County, Arizona, which includes Phoenix, Arizona, and its Sheriff Joe Arpaio, have drawn attention from human rights groups for the use of chain gangs for both men and women.[9] Arizona's modern chain gangs, rather than chipping rocks, digging ditches or other non-productive tasks, often do work of economic benefit to a correctional department, such as removing trash.[10] Opponents note that the gangs often work outside in oppressive desert heat.

Chain gang of juvenile convicts in the US, 2006
Parchman Farm chain gang, 1911


The use of chain gangs in the United States generally ended in 1955. Chain gangs experienced a resurgence when Alabama began to use them again in 1995.[7]

The use of chain gangs for prison labor was the preferred method of punishment in some southern states like Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Virginia, North Carolina, Arkansas, Texas, Mississippi, and Alabama.[8]

  • punishment
  • societal restitution for the cost of housing, feeding, and guarding the inmates. The money earned by work performed goes to offset prison expenses by providing a large workforce at no cost for government projects, and at minimal convict leasing cost for private businesses
  • a way of perpetuating African-American servitude after the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution ended slavery.[7]
  • reducing inmates' idleness
  • to serve as a deterrent to crime
  • to satisfy the needs of politicians to appear "tough on crime"
  • to accomplish undesirable and difficult tasks

Various claims as to the purpose of chain gangs have been offered. These include:

1816 illustration of Christian slaves in Algiers
1842 illustration of chain gang going to work near Sydney, New South Wales, Australia


Modern prisoners are sometimes put into handcuffs or wrist manacles (similar to handcuffs, but with a longer length of chain) and leg irons, with both sets of manacles (wrist and ankle) being chained to a belly chain. This form of restraint is most often used on prisoners expected to be violent, or prisoners appearing in a setting where they may be near the public (a courthouse) or have an opportunity to flee (being transferred from a prison to a court). Although prisoners in these restraints are sometimes chained to one another during transport or other movement, this is not a chain gang — although reporters may refer to it as such — because the restraints make any kind of manual work impossible.

The use of chains could be hazardous. Some of the chains used in the Georgia system in the first half of the twentieth century weighed twenty pounds. Some prisoners suffered from shackle sores — ulcers where the iron ground against their skin. Gangrene and other infections were serious risks. Falls could imperil several individuals at once.

A group of prisoners working outside prison walls under close supervision, but without chains, is a work gang. Their distinctive attire (stripe wear or orange vests or jumpsuits) and shaven heads served the purpose of displaying their punishment to the public, as well as making them identifiable if they attempt to escape. However, the public was often brutal; swearing at convicts and even throwing things at them.[6]

Two ankle shackles attached to each other by a short length of chain are known as a hobble or as leg irons. These could be chained to a much longer chain with several other prisoners, creating a work crew known as a chain gang. The walk required to avoid tripping while in leg irons is known as the convict shuffle.

A single ankle shackle with a short length of chain attached to a heavy ball is known as a ball and chain. It limited prisoner movement and impeded escape.

Synonyms and disambiguation


  • 1 Synonyms and disambiguation
  • History 2
  • Reintroduction 3
  • In popular media 4
  • See also 5
  • Further reading 6
  • References 7
  • External links 8

[5] The introduction of chain gangs into the United States began shortly after the Civil War. The southern states needed finances and public works to be performed. Prisoners were a free way for these works to be achieved.[4] inmates can still volunteer for a chain gang to earn credit toward a high school diploma or avoid disciplinary lockdowns for rule infractions.Maricopa County where in [3],Arizona being the first state to revive them in 1995. The experiment ended after about one year in all states except Alabama" 1990s, with get tough on crime Chain gangs were reintroduced by a few states during the "[2]

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