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Lincoln (2012 film)

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Lincoln (2012 film)

Lincoln
Theatrical release poster
Directed by Steven Spielberg
Produced by Steven Spielberg
Kathleen Kennedy
Screenplay by Tony Kushner
Based on Team of Rivals: The Political Genius of Abraham Lincoln 
by Doris Kearns Goodwin
Starring Daniel Day-Lewis
Sally Field
David Strathairn
Joseph Gordon-Levitt
James Spader
Hal Holbrook
Tommy Lee Jones
Music by John Williams
Cinematography Janusz Kamiński
Edited by Michael Kahn
Production
company
Distributed by Walt Disney Studios
Motion Pictures

(North America)
20th Century Fox
(International)
Release dates
  • October 8, 2012 (2012-10-08) (New York Film Festival)
  • November 9, 2012 (2012-11-09) (United States)[1]
Running time 150 minutes[2]
Country United States
Language English
Budget $65 million[3]
Box office $275.3 million[4]

Lincoln is a 2012 American epic historical drama film directed by Steven Spielberg, starring Daniel Day-Lewis as United States President Abraham Lincoln and Sally Field as Mary Todd Lincoln.[5] The screenplay by Tony Kushner was based in part on Doris Kearns Goodwin's biography Team of Rivals: The Political Genius of Abraham Lincoln, and covers the final four months of Lincoln's life, focusing on the President's efforts in January 1865 to have the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution passed by the United States House of Representatives.

The film was produced by Spielberg and his frequent collaborator Kathleen Kennedy. Filming began October 17, 2011,[6] and ended on December 19, 2011.[7] Lincoln premiered on October 8, 2012 at the New York Film Festival. The film was co-produced by DreamWorks Pictures and Participant Media and released theatrically in the United States by Touchstone Pictures in limited release on November 9, 2012, and in wide release on November 16.[8] The film was released on January 25, 2013, in the United Kingdom, with distribution in international territories by 20th Century Fox.[9]

Lincoln received widespread critical acclaim, with major praise directed to Day-Lewis's performance. In December 2012, the film was nominated for seven Golden Globe Awards including Best Motion Picture – Drama, Best Director for Spielberg and winning Best Actor (Motion Picture – Drama) for Day-Lewis. At the 85th Academy Awards, the film was nominated for twelve Academy Awards including Best Picture; it won for Best Production Design and Best Actor for Day-Lewis.[10] The film was also a commercial success, having grossed more than $275 million at the box office.[4]

Contents

  • Plot 1
  • Cast 2
  • Production 3
    • Development 3.1
    • Casting 3.2
    • Filming 3.3
    • Music 3.4
  • Release 4
    • Marketing 4.1
    • Home media 4.2
  • Reception 5
    • Box office 5.1
    • Critical response 5.2
    • Historian response 5.3
  • See also 6
  • References 7
  • Further reading 8
  • External links 9

Plot

In January 1865, President Abraham Lincoln expects the Civil War to end within a month. However, he is concerned that his 1863 Emancipation Proclamation may be discarded by the courts once the war has concluded and that the Thirteenth Amendment be defeated by the returning slave states. Lincoln feels it is imperative to pass the amendment by the end of the month, thus removing any possibility that slaves who have already been freed may be re-enslaved. The Radical Republicans fear the amendment will merely be defeated by some who wish to delay its passage; the support of the amendment by Republicans in the border states is not yet assured either, since they prioritize the issue of ending the war. Even if all of them are ultimately brought on board, the amendment will still require the support of several Democratic congressmen if it is to pass. With dozens of Democrats having just become lame ducks after losing their re-election campaigns in the fall of 1864, some of Lincoln's advisors believe that he should wait until the new Republican-heavy Congress is seated, presumably giving the amendment an easier road to passage. Lincoln, however, remains adamant about having the amendment in place and the issue of slavery settled before the war is concluded and the southern states readmitted into the Union.

Lincoln's hopes for passage of the amendment rely upon the support of Francis Preston Blair, a founder of the Republican Party whose influence can ensure that all members of the western and border state conservative Republican faction will back the amendment. With Union victory in the Civil War seeming highly likely and greatly anticipated, but not yet a fully accomplished fact, Blair is keen to end the hostilities as soon as possible. Therefore, in return for his support, Blair insists that Lincoln allow him to immediately engage the Confederate government in peace negotiations. This is a complication to Lincoln's amendment efforts since he knows that a significant portion of the support he has garnered for the amendment is from the Radical Republican faction for whom a negotiated peace that leaves slavery intact is morally unacceptable. Unable to proceed without Blair's support, however, Lincoln reluctantly authorizes Blair's mission.

In the meantime, Lincoln and Secretary of State William Seward work on the issue of securing the necessary Democratic votes for the amendment. Lincoln suggests that they concentrate on the lame duck Democrats, as they have already lost re-election and thus will feel free to vote as they please, rather than having to worry about how their vote will affect a future re-election campaign. Since those members also will soon be in need of employment and Lincoln will have many federal jobs to fill as he begins his second term, he sees this as a tool he can use to his advantage. Though Lincoln and Seward are unwilling to offer direct monetary bribes to the Democrats, they authorize agents to quietly go about contacting Democratic congressmen with offers of federal jobs in exchange for their voting in favor of the amendment.

With Confederate envoys ready to meet with Lincoln, he instructs them to be kept out of Washington, as the amendment approaches a vote on the House floor. At the moment of truth, Thaddeus Stevens decides to moderate his statements about racial equality to help the amendment's chances of passage. A rumor circulates that there are Confederate representatives in Washington ready to discuss peace, prompting both Democrats and conservative Republicans to advocate postponing the vote on the amendment. Lincoln explicitly denies that such envoys are in or will be in the city — technically a truthful statement, since he had ordered them to be kept away — and the vote proceeds, narrowly passing by a margin of two votes.

When Lincoln subsequently meets with the Confederates, he tells them that slavery cannot be restored as the North is united for ratification of the amendment, and that several of the southern states' reconstructed legislatures would also vote to ratify. On April 3, Lincoln visits the battlefield at Petersburg, Virginia, where he exchanges a few words with General Grant. Six days later, Grant receives General Lee's surrender at Appomattox Courthouse.

On April 14, Lincoln is in a meeting with members of his cabinet, discussing possible future measures to enfranchise blacks when he is reminded that the First Lady is waiting to take them to their evening at Ford's Theatre. He says to Speaker Schuyler Colfax "I suppose it’s time to go though I would rather stay." As he walks off, he throws his gloves away. That night, while Tad Lincoln is viewing Aladdin and the Wonderful Lamp at Grover's Theatre, the manager suddenly stops the play and announces that the President has been shot, to everyone's shock and dismay. The next morning at the Petersen House, a physician pronounces Lincoln dead, and Secretary of War Edwin Stanton declares, "Now he belongs to the ages". The film concludes in flashback to Lincoln delivering his second inaugural address.

Cast

Lincoln household
Producer Kathleen Kennedy described Day-Lewis's performance as "remarkable" after 75% of the filming had been completed, and said, "Every day you get the chills thinking that Lincoln is sitting there right in front of you." Kennedy described Day-Lewis's method acting immersion into the role: "He is very much deeply invested and immersed throughout the day when he's in character, but he's very accessible at the end of the day, once he can step outside of it and not feel that – I mean, he's given huge scenes with massive amounts of dialogue and he needs to stay in character, it's a very, very performance-driven movie."[12] His performance as Abraham Lincoln earned him his third Academy Award for Best Actor.
Field was first announced to join the cast as early as September 2007, but officially joined the cast in April 2011.[14] Field said, "To have the opportunity to work with Steven Spielberg and Daniel Day-Lewis and to play one of the most complicated and colorful women in American history is simply as good as it gets."[15] Spielberg said, "she has always been my first choice to portray all the fragility and complexity that was Mary Todd Lincoln".[16] Her performance as Mary Todd Lincoln earned her a nomination for the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress.
Keckley was a former slave who was dressmaker and confidante to Mary Todd Lincoln.
Robert Lincoln had recently left his studies at Harvard Law School and was newly named a Union Army captain and personal attendant to General Grant. He returned to the White House on April 14, 1865 to visit his family. His father was assassinated that night.[19]
White House
House of Representatives
A leader of the Radical Republicans and a fervent abolitionist, Stevens feared that Lincoln would "turn his back on emancipation."[19] Jones' performance as Stevens earned him a nomination for the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor.
Republican Party
Blair was an influential Republican politician who tried to arrange a peace agreement between the Union and the Confederacy. Holbrook had previously portrayed Lincoln in the 1976 mini-series Carl Sandburg's Lincoln and in the 1980s North and South mini-series.[21]
Bilbo had been imprisoned but was freed by Lincoln, and then lobbied for passage of the Thirteenth Amendment.[17]
Confederate States
Stephens had served with Lincoln in Congress from 1847 to 1849. He met with Abraham Lincoln on the steamboat River Queen at the unsuccessful Hampton Roads Conference on February 3, 1865
Campbell was a former Supreme Court Justice who had resigned at the start of war and then served as Assistant Secretary of War in the Confederate government. He was also a member of the Confederate delegation that met with Lincoln at the Hampton Roads Conference.
  • Michael Shiflett as the third Confederate delegate to Hampton Roads, Senate President Robert M. T. Hunter
  • Christopher Boyer (non-speaking role) as Robert E. Lee
Union Army

Production

Development

While consulting on a Steven Spielberg project in 1999, Goodwin told Spielberg she was planning to write Team of Rivals, and Spielberg immediately told her he wanted the film rights.[32] DreamWorks finalized the deal in 2001,[33] and by the end of the year, John Logan signed on to write the script.[34] His draft focused on Lincoln's friendship with Frederick Douglass.[35] Playwright Paul Webb was hired to rewrite and filming was set to begin in January 2006,[33] but Spielberg delayed it out of dissatisfaction with the script.[36] Neeson said Webb's draft covered the entirety of Lincoln's term as President.[37]

Tony Kushner replaced Webb. Kushner considered Lincoln "the greatest democratic leader in the world" and found the writing assignment daunting because "I have no idea [what made him great]; I don't understand what he did any more than I understand how William Shakespeare wrote Hamlet or Mozart wrote Così fan tutte." He delivered his first draft late and felt the enormous amount written about Lincoln did not help either. Kushner said Lincoln's abolitionist ideals made him appealing to a Jewish writer, and although he felt Lincoln was Christian, he noted the president rarely quoted the New Testament and that his "thinking and his ethical deliberation seem very talmudic".[38] By late 2008, Kushner joked he was on his "967,000th book about Abraham Lincoln".[39] Kushner's initial 500-page draft focused on four months in the life of Lincoln, and by February 2009 he had rewritten it to focus on two months in Lincoln's life when he was preoccupied with adopting the Thirteenth Amendment.[37]

Casting

Liam Neeson was cast as Lincoln in January 2005, having previously worked with Spielberg in Schindler's List.[33] In preparation for the role, Neeson studied Lincoln extensively.[40] However, in July 2010, Neeson left the project, saying that he had grown too old for the part. Neeson was 58 at the time, and Lincoln, during the time period depicted, was 55 and 56.[41] Co-star Sally Field, in a 2012 PBS interview, intimated that Neeson's decision was influenced by the death of his wife Natasha Richardson less than a year earlier.[42][43] In November 2010, it was announced that Day-Lewis would replace Neeson in the role.[44]

While promoting Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull in May 2008, Spielberg announced his intention to start filming in early 2009,[45] for release in November, ten months after the 200th anniversary of Lincoln's birth.[32] In January 2009, Taunton and Dighton, Massachusetts were being scouted as potential locations.[46] Spielberg arranged a $50 million budget for the film, to please Paramount Pictures CEO Brad Grey, who had previously delayed the project over concerns it was too similar to Spielberg's commercially unsuccessful Amistad (1997). Spielberg had wanted Touchstone Pictures–which agreed to distribute all his films from 2010–to distribute the film, but he was unable to afford paying off Paramount, which had collaborated with DreamWorks on the film's development.[47]

Filming

Filming took place in Petersburg, Virginia. According to location manager Colleen Gibbons, "one thing that attracted the filmmakers to the city was the 180-degree vista of historic structures" which is "very rare".[48] The Virginia State Capitol served as the exteriors and interiors of the U.S Capitol, and the exteriors of the White House. The House of Delegates inside the building was remodeled to fit for The House of Representatives Chamber set. The AMF Building stood in for the White House interiors.[49] Lincoln toured Petersburg on April 3, 1865, the day after it fell to the Union Army. Scenes were also filmed in Fredericksburg, Virginia, Virginia Repertory Theatre's November Theatre which represented Grovers Theatre.[50] Abraham Lincoln visited the building on April 4, 1865, after Richmond fell to the Union Army

On September 4, 2012, DreamWorks and Google Play announced on the film's Facebook page that they would release the trailer for the film during a Google+ hangout with Steven Spielberg and Joseph Gordon-Levitt on September 13, 2012 at 7pm EDT/4pm PDT.[51] Then, on September 10, 2012, a teaser for the trailer was released.[52]

Music

The soundtrack to Lincoln was released by Sony Classical on November 6, 2012 in the United States and was recorded by the Chicago Symphony Orchestra and the Chicago Symphony Chorus.[53][54]

Lincoln: Original Motion Picture Soundtrack
Film score by John Williams
Released November 6, 2012 (2012-11-06)
Recorded 2012
Symphony Center
Genre Contemporary classical
Length 58:46
Label Sony Classical
Producer John Williams
All music composed by John Williams.
No. Title Length
1. "The People's House"   3:43
2. "The Purpose of the Amendment"   3:07
3. "Getting Out the Vote"   2:49
4. "The American Process"   3:57
5. "The Blue and Grey"   3:00
6. "With Malice Toward None"   1:51
7. "Call to Muster and Battle Cry of Freedom"   2:17
8. "The Southern Delegation and the Dream"   4:43
9. "Father and Son"   1:42
10. "The Race to the House"   2:42
11. "Equality Under the Law"   3:12
12. "Freedom's Call"   6:08
13. "Elegy"   2:35
14. "Remembering Willie"   1:51
15. "Appomattox, April 9, 1865"   2:38
16. "The Peterson House and Finale"   11:00
17. "With Malice Toward None (Piano Solo)"   1:31
Total length:
58:46

Release

Lincoln held its world premiere at the New York Film Festival on October 8, 2012.[55] The film was also screened at the 2012 AFI Film Festival on November 8, 2012.[56] Walt Disney Studios Motion Pictures distributed the film in North America through its Touchstone Pictures banner, while 20th Century Fox distributed the film in the remaining international territories.[9]

Marketing

Several companion books and ancillary literature were released in anticipation of the film, including A President for the Ages, Harold Holzer's How Abraham Lincoln Ended Slavery in America, and Disney Publishing's Lincoln: A Cinematic and Historical Companion and Lincoln: A Spielberg Film – Discover the Story.[57]

Home media

Lincoln was released on Blu-ray Disc, DVD, and digital download in North America on March 26, 2013 from Touchstone Home Entertainment.[58] The film debuted at No. 1 in Blu-ray and DVD sales in its first week of release.[59]

Disney Educational Productions donated DVD copies of the film and a teaching guide titled Stand Tall: Live Like Lincoln to more than 37,100 secondary schools in the United States, after Spielberg received letters from educators requesting to incorporate the film into their curriculum.[60][61][62]

Reception

Box office

Lincoln earned $182,207,973 in North America from 2,293 theaters and $93,085,477 overseas for a total of $275,293,450, well exceeding its $65 million budget. The film had a limited opening in 11 theaters with $944,308 and an average of $85,846 per theater. It opened at the #15 rank, becoming the highest opening of a film with such a limited release. The film opened in 1,175 theaters with $21,049,406 and an average of $11,859 per theater.[4] Due to the widespread success of Lincoln, Disney produced additional prints of the film to accommodate theater demand.[63]

Critical response

Lincoln received worldwide critical acclaim. The cast was notably lauded, especially Day-Lewis, Field, and Jones. The film currently holds a 90% approval rating on the review aggregate website Rotten Tomatoes, based on 242 reviews with an average rating of 8/10,[64] with the critical consensus "Daniel Day-Lewis characteristically delivers in this witty, dignified portrait that immerses the audience in its world and entertains even as it informs." On Metacritic, which assigns a rating out of 100 based on reviews from critics, the film has a score of 86 (out of 100) based on 44 reviews, indicating "universal acclaim", thus making it Spielberg's highest rated film on the site since Saving Private Ryan.[65]

Roger Ebert of the Chicago Sun-Times gave the film 4 out of 4 stars and said, "The hallmark of the man, performed so powerfully by Daniel Day-Lewis in Lincoln, is calm self-confidence, patience and a willingness to play politics in a realistic way."[66] Glenn Kenny of MSN Movies gave it 5 out of 5 stars stating, "It's the most remarkable movie Steven Spielberg has made in quite a spell, and one of the things that makes it remarkable is how it fulfills those expectations by simultaneously ignoring and transcending them."[67]

Colin Covert of the Star Tribune wrote, "Lincoln is one of those rare projects where a great director, a great actor and a great writer amplify one another's gifts. The team of Steven Spielberg, Daniel Day-Lewis and Tony Kushner has brought forth a triumphant piece of historical journalism, a profound work of popular art and a rich examination of one of our darkest epochs."[68] It was praised by Charlie McCollum of the San Jose Mercury News as "one of the finest historical dramas ever committed to film."[69] Despite mostly positive reviews, Rex Reed of The New York Observer stated, "In all, there's too much material, too little revelation and almost nothing of Spielberg's reliable cinematic flair." However, the reviews have been unanimous in their praise of Day-Lewis's performance as Abraham Lincoln. A. O. Scott from The New York Times stated the film "is finally a movie about how difficult and costly it has been for the United States to recognize the full and equal humanity of black people" and concluded that the movie was "a rough and noble democratic masterpiece".[70]

Scott also stated that Lincoln's concern about his wife's emotional instability and "the strains of a wartime presidency... produce a portrait that is intimate but also decorous, drawn with extraordinary sensitivity and insight and focused, above all, on Lincoln's character as a politician. This is, in other words, less a biopic than a political thriller, a civics lesson that is energetically staged and alive with moral energy."[70]

Lebanese film critic Anis Tabet gave the film a positive review, giving it a 3.5/4 rating.[71]

As reported in the Maariv newspaper, on February 3, 2013, Israeli prime minister Netanyahu and his ministers discussed Spielberg's film, which several of them saw in Israeli cinemas. They debated whether the end of abolishing slavery justified the means used by Lincoln, and also compared Lincoln's predicament with their own complicated situation in the confused aftermath of the 2013 Israeli elections.[72]

The review by The Daily Mail suggested: "The sad truth is that Spielberg and his writer Tony Kushner are offering a phoney, sanitised version of Lincoln."[73] The Sagamore Online review was also critical: "A film based on historical events that lacks accuracy might still attract audiences on entertainment value alone. Unfortunately, director Steven Spielberg's Lincoln has neither."[74]

Historian response

External links

  • Wai Chee Dimock (Winter 2013). "Crowdsourcing History: Ishmael Reed, Tony Kushner, and Steven Spielberg Update the Civil War". American Literary History 25 (4): 896–914.  

Further reading

  1. ^ The Deadline Team (July 18, 2012). Into Awards-Season Fray"Lincoln"Disney Dates Steven Spielberg's . 
  2. ^ (12A)"LINCOLN".  
  3. ^ McClintock, Pamela (17 October 2013). "DreamWorks' Stacey Snider Reveals How Studio Slimmed Down to Stay Alive". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved 9 December 2013. 
  4. ^ a b c "Lincoln (2012)".  
  5. ^ Breznican, Anthony (April 13, 2011). "Steven Spielberg's 'Lincoln' gets its Mary Todd: Sally Field". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved June 28, 2011. 
  6. ^ McClintock, Pamela (October 12, 2011). "Participant Media Boarding Steven Spielberg's 'Lincoln' (Exclusive)".  
  7. ^ "Filmmakers really liked Petersburg".  
  8. ^ Fischer, Russ (November 19, 2010). "Lincoln"Daniel Day-Lewis to Star in Steven Spielberg's .  
  9. ^ a b McClintock, Pamela (January 23, 2012). "'"Fox Partnering with DreamWorks on Steven Spielberg's 'Lincoln.  
  10. ^ http://stories99.com/2013/02/25/daniel-day-lewis-wins-the-academy-award-for-best-actor-in-a-leading-role/
  11. ^ Fischer, Russ (November 19, 2010). "Lincoln"Daniel Day-Lewis to Star in Steven Spielberg's .  
  12. ^ "Day-Lewis 'remarkable' as Lincoln".  
  13. ^ Chitwood, Adam (April 13, 2011). "Sally Field Set to Play Mary Todd Lincoln in Steven Spielberg's LINCOLN". Collider.com. Retrieved June 28, 2011. 
  14. ^ Carly Mayberry (September 25, 2007). "Field is Spielberg's new first lady".  
  15. ^ "Sally Field Set to Play Mary Todd Lincoln in Steven Spielberg's LINCOLN". Retrieved November 24, 2011. 
  16. ^ Roberts, Roxanne; Argetsinger, Amy (April 13, 2011). "Sally Field to play Mary Todd Lincoln; actress prepped for role with visit to Ford's Theatre".  
  17. ^ a b Casts Every Other Good Actor Under The Sun"Lincoln"Spielberg's . Retrieved November 25, 2011. 
  18. ^ a b Goetz, Barrett (May 5, 2011). "Lincoln"Tommy Lee Jones & Joseph Gordon-Levitt Join Spielberg's . TheMovieMash.com. Retrieved June 28, 2011. 
  19. ^ a b  
  20. ^ Labrecque, Jeff (November 28, 2011). Lincoln': Meet the Cast"'". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved December 1, 2011. 
  21. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q Lipton, Brian Scott (November 28, 2011). "Steven Spielberg's Lincoln Announces Additional Casting". TheaterMania.com. Retrieved November 28, 2011. 
  22. ^ Joshua L. Weinstein (June 27, 2011). "'"David Strathairn Joins DreamWorks' 'Lincoln. TheWrap.com. Retrieved June 28, 2011. 
  23. ^ Jeanne Jakle (July 30, 2011). "Jeanne Jakle: McGill's profile going higher and higher". mysanantonio.com. Retrieved July 30, 2011. 
  24. ^ a b c d e f g h Schaefer, Sandy. Casts Every Other Good Actor Under The Sun"Lincoln"Spielberg's . Screen Rant. Retrieved November 23, 2011. 
  25. ^ a b c d "Lincoln (2012) - Full cast and crew". Imdb.com, Inc. Retrieved 8 April 2013. 
  26. ^ "Lincoln"Walton Goggins Joins Cast Of .  
  27. ^ Frank J. Williams Judging Lincoln 2007 Page 138 "Moses Odell.... He was one of sixteen Democrats who voted for the amendment. Among the others were James E. English of Connecticut, A. H. Coffroth and Archibald McAllister of Pennsylvania, Wells A. Hutchins of Ohio, Augustus C. Baldwin of Michigan and Anson Herrick, William Radford, Judge Homer A. Nelson, John B. Steele, and John Ganson of New York."
  28. ^ "Tim Blake Nelson tapped for Spielberg's 'Lincoln' film in 2012". Retrieved November 25, 2011. 
  29. ^ Vincent, Mal (October 14, 2011). "Spielberg's 'Lincoln' takes Richmond".  
  30. ^ http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0443272/fullcredits?ref_=tt_cl_sm
  31. ^ "Lincoln"David Oyelowo Joins Steven Spielberg's . Retrieved November 24, 2011. 
  32. ^ a b Ruben V. Nepales (May 18, 2008). "Spielberg may co-direct next with Peter Jackson".  
  33. ^ a b c Michael Fleming (January 11, 2005). "Lincoln logs in at DreamWorks: Spielberg, Neeson eye Abe pic".  
  34. ^ "Logan Scripting Spielberg's Lincoln".  
  35. ^ "Lincoln Update".  
  36. ^ Ron Grover (April 17, 2006). "The Director's Cut".  
  37. ^ a b Jeffrey Wells (February 2, 2009). "Spielberg's Lincoln in December?". Hollywood Elsewhere. Retrieved February 10, 2009. 
  38. ^ Naomi Pffefferman (October 25, 2007). "Kushner's (old) testament to Lincoln".  
  39. ^ Karen Bovard (November 20, 2008). "Lincoln Logs".  
  40. ^ Max Evry (January 24, 2007). "Liam Neeson Talks Lincoln".  
  41. ^ Simon Reynolds (July 30, 2010). "Neeson quits Spielberg's Lincoln biopic". Digital Spy. 
  42. ^ "[Sally Field, Part 1]" (in English). ]. Season 9. November 15, 2012. 08:00 minutes in. PBS.
  43. ^ Tom Chiarella (February 15, 2011). "The Hard Luck and Beautiful Life of Liam Neeson". Esquire. Hearst Communications. Retrieved January 11, 2013. 
  44. ^ Shoard, Catherine (November 19, 2010). "Daniel Day-Lewis set for Steven Spielberg's Lincoln film". The Guardian. Retrieved November 19, 2010. 
  45. ^ Sheigh Crabtree (May 10, 2008). "Steven Spielberg: He wants to shoot 'Abraham Lincoln' in 2009".  
  46. ^ Charles Winokoor (February 7, 2009). "Film crews may be back in Silver City".  
  47. ^ Kim Masters (February 17, 2009). "Spielberg's Lincoln Troubles".  
  48. ^ Wiggins, F.M. (November 17, 2011). "Lincoln film to come to Petersburg next month".  
  49. ^ "http://www.virginia.org/LincolnMovieTrailSites/". 
  50. ^ "IMDb > Lincoln (2012) > Filming locations". www.imdb.com. 
  51. ^ "Lincoln Google Hangout and Trailer Premiere Announced for September 13th".  
  52. ^ "Take a Sneak Peek at Steven Spielberg's Lincoln Trailer".  
  53. ^ "John Williams' Tracklist For Score To Steven Spielberg's 'Lincoln' Is Suitably Important & Historical". Retrieved August 27, 2012. 
  54. ^ "John Williams' Lincoln Score Gently Spoils A Few Key Scenes". Retrieved September 30, 2012. 
  55. ^ Finke, Nikki (October 4, 2012). "Surprise: Steven Spielberg’s ‘Lincoln’ To Premiere Monday At New York Film Festival". Deadline Hollywood. Retrieved May 28, 2014. 
  56. ^ Chan, Stephanie (November 9, 2012). "Steven Spielberg Receives Standing Ovation at 'Lincoln' L.A. Premiere". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved May 28, 2014. 
  57. ^ Henderson, Jane (16 November 2012). "'"A few books tied to Spielberg's 'Lincoln.  
  58. ^ Justin Sluss (10 January 2013). comes to Blu-ray in March"Lincoln"Steven Spielberg's Oscar nominated . Retrieved 8 April 2013. 
  59. ^ Lincoln' top DVD and Blu-ray seller; 'Argo' top rental"'". The Los Angeles Times. 8 April 2013. Retrieved 24 April 2013. 
  60. ^ Ford, Rebecca (11 February 2013). Lincoln' DVDs to Go to All U.S. Middle and High Schools"'". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved 30 March 2013. 
  61. ^ "Disney will give "Lincoln" DVD to every middle, high school in U.S.". The Denver Post. 12 February 2013. Retrieved 30 March 2013. 
  62. ^ Solis, Liana (18 February 2013). movie to schools"Lincoln"Disney announces it will donate . The Daily Toreador. Retrieved 19 March 2013. 
  63. ^ Lang, Derrick (03 December 202). Lincoln' Box Office So Strong, Disney Having Hard Time Keeping Up With Demand"'". The Huffington Post. Retrieved 12 January 2013. 
  64. ^ "Lincoln".  
  65. ^ "Lincoln".  
  66. ^ "Roger Ebert's review of Lincoln". Retrieved November 15, 2012. 
  67. ^ "Review by Glenn Kenny (MSN Movies)". Retrieved January 3, 2013. 
  68. ^ "'"Making history with 'Lincoln. Retrieved January 11, 2013. 
  69. ^ McCollum, Charlie (2012-11-07). "'"Review: An epic 'Lincoln.  
  70. ^ a b Scott, A. O. (8 November 2012). "A President Engaged in a Great Civil War". The New York Times. Retrieved 9 November 2012. 
  71. ^ anistabet (2013-01-13). "Lincoln [2012] | Let's tlk abt movies". Tlkabtmovies.com. Retrieved 2013-02-23. 
  72. ^ Shalom Yerushalmi, "Throne Games" (Hebrew: משחקי הכס), a commentary on the week's political events, Maariv, Feb. 8, 2013
  73. ^ Tookey, Chris (January 24, 2013). "Abe needs a few amendments: Spielberg's Lincoln biopic is heavy on heroic speeches but light on the historical truth". MailOnline
  74. ^ Kim, Andrea (October 2012). "Spielberg's Lincoln lacks power". The Sagamore Online
  75. ^ "Lincoln's Use of Politics for Noble Ends". NYTimes.com. 2012-11-26. Retrieved 2012-12-04. 
  76. ^ Kate Masur (2012-11-12). , Passive Black Characters"Lincoln"In Spielberg's . NYTimes.com. Retrieved 2012-12-04. 
  77. ^ Harold Holzer (2012-11-22). Movie"Lincoln"What's True and False in .  
  78. ^ Barry Bradford. "Is the Lincoln Movie Historically Accurate?". 
  79. ^ Frum, David (2012-11-27). "'"A Civil War Professor Reviews 'Lincoln.  
  80. ^ "Understanding Lincoln: An interview with historian Allen Guelzo". World Socialist Web Site. Retrieved 15 April 2013. 
  81. ^ Author:  David O. Stewart (November 20, 2012). "How True is "Lincoln"? | History News Network". Hnn.us. Retrieved 2012-12-04. 
  82. ^ Updated: Nov 23, 2012 04:49 PM EST (2012-11-23). "Fact-Checking Steven Spielberg's 'Lincoln' Movie with Biographer Ronald C. White : Books : Books & Review". Booksnreview.com. Retrieved 2012-12-04. 
  83. ^ "Fact-Checking 'Lincoln': Lincoln's Mostly Realistic; His Advisers Aren't – Joshua Zeitz". The Atlantic. Retrieved 2012-12-04. 
  84. ^ "Panel Discussion for the film LINCOLN". This Week in the Civil War. 2013-01-16. Retrieved 2013-02-23. 

References

See also

[84] remarked, "I always look at these films to see if a regular person who wasn't a 'Lincoln nut' would want to read a book about it after they watched the movie. I get the impression that most people who are not history buffs will now want to read something about Lincoln."Concordia University Civil War Commemoration Task Force held a panel discussion in which Dr. David Woodard of Minnesota Following a screening during the film's opening weekend, the [83] is not a perfect film, but it is an important film".Lincoln, noted some minor mistakes, but concluded "The Atlantic, writing in Joshua M. Zeitz Historian [82], "Is every word true? No."NPR Lincoln biographer Ronald White also admired the film, though he noted a few mistakes and pointed out in an interview with [81] David Stewart, independent historical author, writing for History News Network, described Spielberg's work as "reasonably solid history", and told readers of HNN to "go see it with a clear conscience".[80] Guelzo claimed that "the film was 90 percent on the mark, which given the way Hollywood usually does history is saying something".World Socialist Web Site In a later interview with the [79], had some plot criticism, but disagreed with Holzer, arguing that, "The pains that have been taken in the name of historical authenticity in this movie are worth hailing just on their own terms".The Daily Beast), also writing for Gettysburg College Allen Guelzo ([78]

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