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Munchausen syndrome by proxy

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Title: Munchausen syndrome by proxy  
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Subject: Munchausen syndrome, Female perversion, Genene Jones, Victim playing, Waneta Hoyt
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Munchausen syndrome by proxy

Münchausen syndrome by proxy
Classification and external resources
ICD-10 F68.12
ICD-9 301.51
DiseasesDB 33167
MedlinePlus 001555
eMedicine med/3544
MeSH D016735

Münchausen syndrome by proxy (MSBP or MBP) is a behaviour pattern in which a caregiver fabricates, exaggerates, or induces health problems in those who are in their care.[1] With deception at its core, this behaviour is an elusive, potentially lethal, and frequently misunderstood form of child abuse[2] or medical neglect[3] that has been difficult to define, detect, and confirm.

MSbP has also spawned much heated controversy within the legal and social services communities. In a handful of high-profile cases, mothers who have had multiple children die from sudden infant death syndrome have been declared to have MSbP. Based on MSbP testimony of an expert witness, they were tried for murder, convicted, and imprisoned for several years. In some cases, that testimony was later impeached, resulting in acquittal of those defendants.[4]

Contents

  • General information 1
  • Naming 2
    • Initial description 2.1
  • The term 3
    • Terminology confusion 3.1
  • Indications 4
  • Prevalence by gender 5
  • Controversy 6
  • Legal status in Australia and the UK 7
  • Münchausen syndrome by proxy involving pets 8
  • Notable cases 9
  • In popular culture 10
  • See also 11
  • References 12
  • Bibliography 13

General information

In Münchausen syndrome by proxy, an adult caregiver (typically the mother), makes a child appear sick by either fabricating symptoms or actually causing harm to the child, in order to gain the attention of medical providers and others. In order to perpetuate the medical relationship, the caregiver systematically misrepresents symptoms, fabricates signs, manipulates laboratory tests, or even purposely harms the child (e.g. by poisoning, suffocation, infection, physical injury).[5] Studies have shown a mortality rate of between 6% and 10% of MSbP victims, making it perhaps the most lethal form of abuse.[6][7]

A study published in 2003 reviewed 451 documented cases of MSbP. The average age of the victims at diagnosis was 4 years old; slightly over half of the victims were aged 24 months or younger, and 75% of victims were under six years old. The average duration from onset of symptoms to diagnosis was 22 months. Six percent of the victims were dead, mostly from apnea (a common result of smothering) or starvation and 7% suffered long-term or permanent injury. About half of the victims had siblings; 25% of the known siblings were dead, and 61% of siblings had symptoms similar to the victim or that were otherwise suspicious. The victim's mother was the perpetrator in 76.5% of the cases, the father in 6.7%.[7]

In the above study, most victims presented with about three medical problems in some combination out of 103 different reported symptoms. The most frequently reported problems are apnea (26.8% of cases), anorexia / feeding problems (24.6% of cases), diarrhea (20%), seizures (17.5%), [8] Many of these symptoms are easy to fake because they are subjective. For example, reports that "my baby had a fever last night" are impossible to prove or disprove. The number and variety of presented symptoms contributes to the difficulty in reaching a proper MSbP diagnosis.

The primary distinguishing feature that differentiates MSbP from "typical" physical child abuse is the degree of premeditation involved. Whereas most physical abuse entails lashing out at a child in response to some behavior (e.g. crying, bedwetting, spilling food), assaults on the MSbP victim tend to be unprovoked and planned.[9]

Also unique to this form of abuse is the role that health care providers play by actively, albeit unintentionally, enabling the abuse. By reacting to the concerns and demands of perpetrators, medical professionals are manipulated into a partnership of child maltreatment.[5] Challenging cases that defy simple medical explanations may prompt health care providers to pursue unusual or rare diagnoses, thus allocating even more time to the child and the abuser. Even without prompting, medical professionals may be easily seduced into prescribing diagnostic tests and therapies that are at best uncomfortable and costly, and at worst potentially injurious to the child.[3] If the health practitioner instead resists ordering further tests, drugs, procedures, surgeries, or specialists, the MSbP abuser makes the medical system appear negligent for refusing to help a poor sick child and their selfless parent.[5] Like those with Münchausen Syndrome, MSbP perpetrators are known to switch medical providers frequently, until they find one that is willing to meet their level of need; this practice is known as "doctor shopping" or "hospital hopping".

The perpetrator will continue the abuse because maintaining the child in the role of the patient satisfies the abuser's needs. The cure for the victim is to separate the child completely from the abuser. When parental visits are allowed, sometimes there is a disastrous outcome for the child. Even when the child is removed, the perpetrator may turn their attention to another child: a sibling or other child in the family.[10]

Münchausen by Proxy can also have many long-term emotional effects on a child. Child victims learn that they are most likely to receive the positive maternal attention they crave when they are playing the sick role in front of health care providers. Many case reports describe MSbP victims who grow into Münchausen syndrome patients or continue the pattern of MSbP abuse in their own children.[11] Seeking personal gratification through illness can thus become a lifelong and multi-generational disorder.[5][12]

Naming

The name "Münchausen syndrome by proxy" (MSbP) is derived from Münchausen syndrome - they describe different, though related, conditions. People with Münchausen syndrome have a profound need to assume the sick role, and will exaggerate complaints, falsify tests, and/or inflict illnesses on themselves directly.[13] Münchausen syndrome by proxy perpetrators, by contrast, are willing to fulfill their need for positive attention by hurting their own child, thereby assuming the sick role onto their child, by proxy. These proxies then gain personal attention and support by taking on this fictitious "hero role" and receive positive attention from others, by appearing to care for and save their so-called sick child.[5]

Initial description

"Münchausen syndrome" was first described by R. Asher in 1951[14] as when someone invents or exaggerates medical symptoms, sometimes engaging in self-harm, to gain attention or sympathy.

The term "Münchausen syndrome by proxy" was first coined by John Money and June Faith Werlwas in a 1976 paper titled Folie à deux in the parents of psychosocial dwarfs: Two cases[15][16] in order to describe the abuse-induced and neglect-induced symptoms of the syndrome of abuse dwarfism. That same year, Sneed and Bell wrote an article titled The Dauphin of Münchausen: factitious passage of renal stones in a child.[17]

According to other sources, the term was created by the British pediatrician Roy Meadow in 1977.[18][19][20] In 1977, Roy Meadow — then professor of pediatrics at the University of Leeds, England — described the extraordinary behavior of two mothers. According to Meadow, one had poisoned her toddler with excessive quantities of salt. The other had introduced her own blood into her baby's urine sample. He referred to this behavior as Münchausen syndrome by proxy (MSbP).[21]

The medical community was initially skeptical of MSbP's existence, but it gradually gained acceptance as a recognized condition. There are now more than 2,000 case reports of MSbP in the professional literature. Reports come from developing countries, including within the USA, (most recent case dated 2012-2013, in Orlando, FL). And others in, Sri Lanka, Nigeria, and Oman.[22]

The term

Münchausen syndrome by proxy is a controversial term. The International Statistical Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision (ICD-10), the official diagnosis is factitious disorder (301.51 in ICD-9, F68.12 in ICD-10). Within the United States, factitious disorder imposed on another (FDIA or FDIoA) was officially recognized as a disorder in 2013,[23] while in the United Kingdom, it is known as fabricated or induced illness by carers (FII),.[24]

In DSM-5, the diagnostic manual published by the American Psychiatric Association in 2013, this disorder is listed under 301.51 Factitious disorder. This, in turn, encompases two types:[23]

  • Factitious disorder imposed on self – (formerly Münchausen syndrome).
  • Factitious disorder imposed on another – (formerly Münchausen syndrome by proxy); diagnosis assigned to the perpetrator; the victim may be assigned an abuse diagnosis (e.g. child abuse).

Terminology confusion

Still widely used, the term "Münchausen syndrome by proxy" has led to much confusion in the literature. In the United States, the term has never officially been included as a discrete mental disorder by the American Psychiatric Association,[1] which publishes the widely-recognized Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), now in its fifth edition.[23] Although the DSM-III (1980) and DSM-III-R (1987) included Münchausen Syndrome, they did not include MSbP. DSM-IV (1994) and DSM-IV-TR (2000) added MSbP as a proposal only, and finally being recognized as a disorder in DSM-5 (2013) – yet each of these last three editions of the DSM listed this disorder (or proposal) with a different name.

Elsewhere as well, ongoing lack of consensus has led to much confusion over terminology, and MSbP has been given many names in different places and at different times. What follows is a partial list of alternative names that have been either used or proposed (with approximate dates):[24]

  • Factitious Disorder Imposed on Another (current) (U.S., 2013) American Psychiatric Association, DSM-5
  • Factitious Disorder by Proxy (FDP, FDbP) (proposed) (U.S., 2000) American Psychiatric Association, DSM-IV-TR[25]
  • Fictitious Disorder by Proxy (FDP, FDbP) (proposed) (U.S., 1994) American Psychiatric Association, DSM-IV
  • Fabricated or Induced Illness by Carers (FII) (U.K., 2002) The Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health[26]
  • Factitious Illness by Proxy (1996) World Health Organization[27]
  • Pediatric Condition Falsification (PCF) (proposed) (U.S., 2002) American Professional Society on the Abuse of Children proposed this term to diagnose the child/victim; Perpetrator (mother) would be diagnosed "Factitious disorder by proxy"; MSbP would be retained as the name applied to the 'disorder' that contains these two elements, a diagnosis in the child and a diagnosis in the caretaker.[28]
  • Induced Illness (Munchausen Syndrome by Proxy) (Ireland, 1999–2002) Department of Health and Children[24]
  • Meadow's Syndrome (1984–1987) named after Roy Meadow.[29] This label, however, had already been in use since 1957 to describe a completely unrelated and rare form of cardiomyopathy.[30]
  • Polle Syndrome (1977–1984) Coined by Burman and Stevens, from the then common belief that Baron Münchhausen's second wife gave birth to a daughter named Polle during their marriage.[31][32] The baron declared that the baby was not his, and the child died from "seizures" at the age of 10 months. The name fell out of favor after 1984, when it was discovered that Polle was not the baby's name, but rather was the name of her mother's hometown.[18][33]

Just as the name of this disorder been in disarray, so too has its definition. For example, while it initially included only the infliction of harmful medical care, the appellation has subsequently been extended to include cases in which the only harm arose from medical neglect, noncompliance, or even educational interference.[3]

Indications

The adult care provider who is abusing the child often seems comfortable and not upset over the child's hospitalization.While the child is hospitalized, medical professionals need to monitor the caregiver's visits in order to prevent any attempt to worsen the condition of the child.[34] In addition, in most states, medical professionals have a duty to report such abuse to legal authorities.[35] Warning signs of the disorder include:.[34]

  • A child who has one or more medical problems that do not respond to treatment or that follow an unusual course that is persistent, puzzling, and unexplained. Caused and/or portrayed/brought on by caretaker; particularly mother.
  • Physical or laboratory findings that are highly unusual, discrepant with patient's presentation or history, or physically or clinically impossible.
  • A parent who appears to be medically knowledgeable, fascinated with medical details and hospital gossip, appears to enjoy the hospital environment, and expresses interest in the details of other patients' problems.
  • A highly attentive parent who is reluctant to leave their child's side and who themselves seem to require constant attention.
  • A parent who appears to be unusually calm in the face of serious difficulties in their child's medical course while being highly supportive and encouraging of the physician, or one who is angry, devalues staff, and demands further intervention, more procedures, second opinions, and transfers to other more sophisticated facilities.
  • The suspected parent may work in the health care field themselves or profess interest in a health-related job.
  • The signs and symptoms of a child's illness do not occur in the parent's absence (hospitalization and careful monitoring may be necessary to establish this causal relationship).
  • A family history of similar or unexplained illness or death in a sibling.
  • A parent with symptoms similar to their child's own medical problems or an illness history that itself is puzzling and unusual.
  • A suspected emotionally distant relationship between parents; the spouse often fails to visit the patient and has little contact with physicians even when the child is hospitalized with a serious illness.
  • A parent who reports dramatic, negative events, such as house fires, burglaries, or car accidents, that affect them and their family while their child is undergoing treatment.
  • A parent who seems to have an insatiable need for adulation or who makes self-serving efforts for public acknowledgment of their abilities.
  • A patient who unexplainably deteriorates whenever discharge is planned.

Caution is required in the diagnosis of MSbP/FII/FDP. Many of the items above are also indications of a child with organic, but undiagnosed illness. An ethical diagnosis of MSbP must include an evaluation of the child, an evaluation of the parents, and an evaluation of the family dynamics. Diagnoses based only on a review of the child's medical chart can be rejected in court.

Prevalence by gender

One study showed that in 93 percent of cases of MSbP, the abuser is the mother or another female guardian or caregiver.[9] The female preponderance of the perpetrator may be attributed to socialization patterns that encourage females to seek the sympathy and assistance of others, and to the prevalence of women as the primary care giver within such patterns. Neuropsychological testing of perpetrators has shown either normal results or nonspecific abnormalities.

MSbP may also be attributed to another prevalent socialization pattern, which places females in the primary care-taking role. A psychodynamic model of this kind of maternal abuse exists.[36]

MSbP may be more prevalent in the parents of those with a learning difficulty or mental incapacity, and as such the apparent patient could in fact be a grown adult.

Fathers and other male caregivers have been the perpetrators in only 7% of the cases studied.[7] When they are not actively involved in the abuse, the fathers or male guardians of MSbP victims are often described as being distant, emotionally disengaged, and powerless. These men play a passive role in MSbP by being frequently absent from the home and rarely visiting the hospitalized child. Usually, they will vehemently deny the possibility of abuse, even in the face of overwhelming evidence or their child’s pleas for help.[5][9]

Overall, male and female children are equally likely to be the victim of MSbP. In the few cases where the father is the perpetrator, however, the victim is three times more likely to be male.[7]

Controversy

During the 1990s and early 2000s, Meadow was an expert witness in several murder cases involving MSbP/FII. Dr. Meadow was knighted for his work for child protection, though later, his reputation, and consequently the credibility of MSbP, became severely damaged when several convictions of child killing, in which he acted as an expert witness, were overturned. The mothers in those cases were wrongly convicted of murdering two or more of their children, and had already been imprisoned for up to six years.[4][20]

The pivotal case was that of Sally Clark. Clark was a lawyer wrongly convicted in 1999 of the murder of her two baby sons, largely on the basis of Meadow's evidence. As an expert witness for the prosecution, Meadow asserted that the odds of there being two unexplained infant deaths in one family were one in 73 million. That figure was crucial in sending Clark to jail but was hotly disputed by the Royal Statistical Society, who wrote to the Lord Chancellor to complain.[37] It was subsequently shown that once other factors (e.g. genetic or environmental) were taken into consideration, the true odds were much greater, i.e., there was a significantly higher likelihood of two deaths happening as a chance occurrence than Meadow had claimed during the trial. Those odds in fact range from a low of 1:8500 to as high as 1:200.[38] It emerged later that there was clear evidence of a Staphylococcus aureus infection that had spread as far as the child’s cerebrospinal fluid.[39] Mrs Clark was released in January 2003 after three judges quashed her convictions in the Court of Appeal in London,[39][40] but suffering from catastrophic trauma of the experience, she later died from alcohol poisoning. Meadow was involved as a prosecution witness in three other high-profile cases resulting in mothers being imprisoned and subsequently cleared of wrongdoing — those of Trupti Patel,[41] Angela Cannings,[42] and Donna Anthony.[43]

In 2003, Lord Howe, the Opposition spokesman on health, accused Meadow of inventing a "theory without science" and refusing to produce any real evidence to prove that Münchausen syndrome by proxy actually exists. It is important to distinguish between the act of harming a child, which can be easily verified, and motive, which is much harder to verify and which MSbP tries to explain. For example, a caregiver may wish to harm a child simply out of malice and then attempt to conceal it as illness to avoid detection of abuse, rather than in order to draw attention and sympathy.

The distinction is often crucial in criminal proceedings, in which the prosecutor must prove both the act and the mental element constituting a crime to establish guilt. In most legal jurisdictions, a doctor can give expert witness testimony as to whether a child was being harmed but cannot speculate regarding the motive of the caregiver. FII merely refers to the fact that illness is induced or fabricated and does not specifically limit the motives of such acts to a caregiver's need for attention and/or sympathy.

In all, around 250 cases resulting in conviction in which Meadow was an expert witness were reviewed, with few changes. Meadow was investigated by the British General Medical Council over evidence he gave in the Sally Clark trial. In July 2005, the GMC declared Meadow guilty of "serious professional misconduct", and he was struck off the medical register for giving “erroneous” and “misleading” evidence.[44] At appeal, High Court judge Mr. Justice Collins said that the severity of his punishment "approaches the irrational" and set it aside.[45][46]

Collins's judgment raises important points concerning the liability of expert witnesses — his view is that referral to the GMC by the losing side is an unacceptable threat and that only the Court should decide whether its witnesses are seriously deficient and refer them to their professional bodies.[47]

In addition to the controversy surrounding expert witnesses, an article appeared in the forensic literature that detailed legal cases involving controversy surrounding the murder suspect.[48] The article provides a brief review of the research and criminal cases involving Münchausen Syndrome by Proxy in which psychopathic mothers and caregivers were the murderers. It also briefly describes the importance of gathering behavioral data, including observations of the parents who commit the criminal acts. The article references the 1997 work of Southall, Plunkett, Banks, Falkov, and Samuels, in which covert video recorders were used to monitor the hospital rooms of suspected MSbP victims. In 30 out of 39 cases, a parent was observed intentionally suffocating their child; in two they were seen attempting to poison a child; in another, the mother deliberately broke her 3-month-old daughter's arm. Upon further investigation, those 39 patients, ages 1 month to 3 years old, had 41 siblings; 12 of those had died suddenly and unexpectedly.[49] The use of covert video, while apparently extremely effective, raises controversy in some jurisdictions over privacy rights.

Legal status in Australia and the UK

In most legal jurisdictions, doctors are only allowed to give evidence in regard to whether the child is being harmed. They are not allowed to give evidence in regard to the motive. Australia and the UK have established the legal precedent that MSbP does not exist as a medico-legal entity.

In a June 2004 appeal hearing, the Supreme Court of Queensland, Australia, stated:

The Queensland Supreme Court further ruled that the determination of whether or not a defendant had caused intentional harm to a child was a matter for the jury to decide and not for the determination by expert witnesses:

Principles of law and implications for legal processes that may be deduced from these findings are that:

  1. Any matters brought before a Court of Law should be determined by the facts, not by suppositions attached to a label describing a behavior, i.e., MSBP/FII/FDBP;
  2. MSBP/FII/FDBP is not a mental disorder (i.e., not defined as such in DSM IV), and the evidence of a psychiatrist should not therefore be admissible;
  3. MSBP/FII/FDBP has been stated to be a behavior describing a form of child abuse and not a medical diagnosis of either a parent or a child. A medical practitioner cannot therefore state that a person "suffers" from MSBP/FII/FDBP, and such evidence should also therefore be inadmissible. The evidence of a medical practitioner should be confined to what they observed and heard and what forensic information was found by recognized medical investigative procedures;
  4. A label used to describe a behavior is not helpful in determining guilt and is prejudicial. By applying an ambiguous label of MSBP/FII to a woman is implying guilt without factual supportive and corroborative evidence;
  5. The assertion that other people may behave in this way, i.e., fabricate and/or induce illness in children to gain attention for themselves (FII/MSBP/FDBY), contained within the label is not factual evidence that this individual has behaved in this way. Again therefore, the application of the label is prejudicial to fairness and a finding based on fact.

The Queensland Judgment was adopted into English law in the High Court of Justice by Mr. Justice Ryder. In his final conclusions regarding Factitious Disorder, Ryder states that:

In his book Playing Sick (2004), Marc Feldman notes that such findings have been in the minority among U.S. and even Australian courts. Pediatricians and other physicians have banded together to oppose limitations on child-abuse professionals whose work includes FII detection.[53] The April 2007 issue of the journal Pediatrics specifically mentions Meadow as an individual who has been inappropriately maligned.

Münchausen syndrome by proxy involving pets

Medical literature describes a subset of MSbP caregivers, where the proxy is a pet rather than another person. These cases are labeled Münchausen syndrome by proxy: pet (MSbP:P). In these cases, pet owners correspond to caregivers in traditional MSbP presentations involving human proxies.[54] No extensive survey has yet been made of the extant literature, and there has been no speculation as to how closely MSbP:P tracks with human MSbP.

Notable cases

Wendi Michelle Scott, a mother accused of harming her child.[55]

The book Sickened: The Memoir of a Munchausen by Proxy Childhood, by Julie Gregory, details her life growing up with a mother suffering from Münchausen by Proxy, who took her to various doctors, coached her to act sicker than she was and to exaggerate her symptoms, and who demanded increasingly invasive procedures to diagnose Gregory's enforced imaginary illnesses.[56]

Lisa Hayden-Johnson of Devon was jailed for 3 years and 3 months after subjecting her son to a total of 325 medical actions - including being confined to a wheelchair and being fed through a tube in his stomach. She claimed her son suffered from a long list of illnesses including diabetes, food allergies, cerebral palsy and cystic fibrosis, describing him as "the most ill child in Britain" and receiving numerous cash donations and charity gifts, including two cruises.[57]

In 2014, 26-year-old Lacey Spears was charged in Westchester County, New York with second-degree depraved murder and first-degree manslaughter. She allegedly fed her son dangerous amounts of salt after she conducted research on the Internet about its effects. Her actions were allegedly motivated by the social media attention she gained on Facebook, Twitter and blogs. The defendant has pleaded not guilty to the charges.[58]

In popular culture

The 1999 film The Sixth Sense portrays Münchausen syndrome by proxy during a scene in which Cole (Haley Joel Osment) helps reveal that the recent death of Kyra (Mischa Barton) was caused by intentional poisoning by her mother.

The plot of the 2003 Japanese J-horror film One Missed Call (着信アリ Chakushin ari) revolves around an older sister with a case of Münchausen syndrome by proxy.

In "The Calusari" episode of The X-Files, Agent Scully initially believes that one of the characters is inducing illness in her grandson and makes reference to Münchausen syndrome by proxy.

In Lisa Gardner's novel Catch Me, Charlie Grant, the main character, was abused in childhood by her mother who had Münchausen by proxy, until she fought back and was placed under her aunt's care, while her mother was taken away to a psychiatric hospital.

In the 2006 film Glass House 2: The Good Mother, the mother of the family, Eve played by Angie Harmon, suffers from Münchausen by proxy, which results in the suspicious deaths of three former adoptive children and the illness of her current foster child, Ethan played by Bobby Coleman.

The novel Sharp Objects, by author Gillian Flynn, uses Münchausen by proxy as a major plot point.

In the season five episode "The Colour of Amber" of British crime drama television series Wire in the Blood, a case involving the abduction of an 11-year old girl is solved when criminal psychologist Dr. Anthony "Tony" Valentine Hill (Robson Green) realizes that the mother of the missing girl suffers from Münchausen by proxy and is in fact responsible for killing and dumping the body of her own daughter.

In an episode of Casualty, a sick and dangerous mother named Laura Merriman deliberately makes her daughter Rosie ill by injecting her with insulin. She also makes Christmas a living hell for Rosie, her family and friends and for all the staff at the hospital, but is caught and arrested.

In The Bridge, the nanny of Danish detective Martin Rohde's (Kim Bodnia) children is discovered to have MBP after his Swedish counterpart, Saga Noren (Sofia Helin) spots the signs. This, in turn, reveals Saga's prior experience with it through her mother, and sheds light on the suicide of her sister.

In the movie Yes Man, Allison's band is named "Munchhausen by Proxy".

In rapper Eminem's 2002 single "Cleanin' Out My Closet", he claims that his mother had Münchausen by Proxy.

In 2007, the TV show Supernatural on the CW references Münchausen syndrome by proxy in the episode "Bedtime Stories". In which the Winchester brothers discover a young girl who was victimized by her step mother and poisoned by bleach.

In the season six episode "Abby Road" of ER, a mother brings in her young son who has endured multiple surgeries, and is eventually exposed by a sting operation after injecting what she believes to be hydrochloric acid into her son's feeding tube.

In the 1986 horror novel It by Stephen King, Eddie's mother demonstrates behavior resembling that of a mother with Münchausen syndrome by proxy, by inventing that her son has asthma. Later in the novel the disease is shown to be psychosomatic, and that the medicine Eddie uses in his aspirator is just water with flavoring.

An episode of HBO's True Detective entitled "Haunted Houses" featured one of the series' protagonists, Rust Cohle, interrogating a woman with Münchausen syndrome by proxy who had murdered three of her children while blaming the deaths on Sudden Infant Death Syndrome.

In Saving Max by Antoinette van Heugten, Marianne, Jonas's mother, is suspected and accused of having MBP and blames the murder of her son on another autistic boy, the protagonist's son.

See also

References

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  34. ^ a b Schreier, Herbert A.; Judith A. Libow (1993). Hurting for Love: Munchausen by Proxy Syndrome.  
  35. ^ Elder W, Coletsos IC, Bursztajn HJ. Factitious Disorder/Munchhausen Syndrome. The 5-Minute Clinical Consult. 18th Edition. 2010. Editor: Domino F.J. Wolters Kluwer/Lippencott. Philadelphia.
  36. ^ See Anna Motz's The Psychology of Female Violence: Crimes Against the Body (Routledge, 2001 ISBN 978-0-415-12675-5, 2nd ed. forthcoming 2008 ISBN 978-0-415-40387-0).
  37. ^ Green, Peter (23 January 2002). "Letter from the President to the Lord Chancellor regarding the use of statistical evidence in court cases" (PDF).  
  38. ^  
  39. ^ a b Shaikh, Thair (17 March 2007). "Sally Clark, mother wrongly convicted of killing her sons, found dead at home". The Guardian. 
  40. ^ R v. Clark [2003] EWCA Crim 1020 (11 April)
  41. ^ Payne, Stewart (12 June 2003). "Joy for mother cleared of baby deaths".  
  42. ^  
  43. ^  
  44. ^  
  45. ^ Meadow v. General Medical Council [2006] EWHC 146 (Admin) at para. 57 (17 February)
  46. ^  
  47. ^ Meadow v. General Medical Council [2006] EWHC 146 (Admin) at para. 21–26 (17 February)
  48. ^ Perri, Frank; Lichtenwald, Terrance (2010). "The Last Frontier: Myths & The Female Psychopathic Killer" (PDF). Forensic Examiner 19 (2): 50–67. 
  49. ^  
  50. ^ R v LM [2004] QCA 192 at para. 67 (4 June)
  51. ^ Ibid., at para. 71
  52. ^ A County Council v A Mother and A Father and X,Y,Z children [2005] EWHC 31 (Fam) (18 January)
  53. ^ Feldman, Marc (2004). Playing sick?: untangling the web of Munchausen syndrome, Munchausen by proxy, malingering & factitious disorder. Philadelphia: Brunner-Routledge.  
  54. ^ Tucker HS, Finlay F, Guiton S (2002). "Munchausen syndrome involving pets by proxies". Arch. Dis. Child. 87 (3): 263.  
  55. ^ Leckie, Kate (2007-11-20). "Military wife faces assault charges for making daughter sick". Frederick News Post. Retrieved 2007-11-24. 
  56. ^ "Growing pains". People.com. Retrieved 1 October 2013. 
  57. ^ BBC News 22 January 2010 http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/england/devon/8473949.stm
  58. ^ Lindsey Bever (18 June 2014). "Woman accused of fatally poisoning son in Munchausen case". Washington Post. Retrieved 18 June 2014. 

Bibliography

  • Leila Schneps and Coralie Colmez, Math on trial. How numbers get used and abused in the courtroom, Basic Books, 2013. ISBN 978-0-465-03292-1. (First chapter: "Math error number 1: multiplying non-independent probabilities. The case of Sally Clark: motherhood under attack").
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