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Murder, She Wrote

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Murder, She Wrote

Murder, She Wrote
Created by Peter S. Fischer
Richard Levinson[1]
William Link
Starring Angela Lansbury
William Windom
Tom Bosley
Ron Masak
Theme music composer John Addison
Country of origin United States
No. of seasons 12
No. of episodes 265 (+ 4 TV movies)
(List of episodes)
Executive producer(s) Angela Lansbury (1992–1996)[2]
Peter S. Fischer
Richard Levinson
William Link
David Moessinger
Running time 48 minutes
(excluding commercials)
Production company(s) Universal Television
Corymore Productions
Distributor NBCUniversal Domestic Television Distribution
Original channel CBS[3]
Picture format 35 mm film
Original Broadcast:
4:3 480i (SDTV)
4:3 1080i (HDTV)
Original release September 30, 1984 – May 16, 1996
Related shows Magnum, P.I.
The Law & Harry McGraw

Murder, She Wrote is an American television mystery series starring Angela Lansbury as mystery writer and amateur detective Jessica Fletcher.[4][5] The series aired for 12 seasons with 264 episodes from 1984 to 1996 on the CBS network. It was followed by four TV films and a spin-off series was produced in 1987, The Law & Harry McGraw. It is one of the most successful and longest-running television shows in history, with close to 23 million viewers in its prime, and was a staple of the CBS Sunday night lineup for a decade.[6] In syndication, the series is still successful throughout the world.

Lansbury was nominated for a total of ten Golden Globes and 12 Emmy Awards for her work on Murder, She Wrote. She holds the record for the most Golden Globe nominations for Best Actress in a television drama series and the most Emmy nominations for outstanding lead actress in a drama series for Murder, She Wrote, with those nominations netting her four Golden Globe awards. The series received three nominations but no wins in the Outstanding Drama Series category at the Emmys. It was nominated for a Golden Globe in the same category six times and won twice.

Since the series ended in 1996, a series of four TV movies was released between 1997 and 2003, and a game created by Legacy Interactive was released for the PC platform in 2009.[7] A second game was released in 2012.[8] A spin-off book series, written by Donald Bain, continues publication at present.


  • History 1
    • Origin 1.1
    • Premise 1.2
    • Ending 1.3
  • Abandoned reboot 2
  • Cast 3
    • Regular cast 3.1
    • Recurring cast 3.2
    • Guest stars 3.3
  • Episodes 4
    • Crossover with Magnum, P.I. 4.1
  • Awards and nominations 5
  • U.S. television ratings 6
  • Broadcast history 7
  • International syndication 8
  • Merchandise 9
  • Multimedia 10
  • References 11
  • External links 12



Murder, She Wrote might never have come about had producers Richard Levinson and William Link succeeded with their TV series Ellery Queen. That series folded after a single season, but Levinson and Link were still committed to the concept of a bestselling murder-mystery novelist who solved real murders when not at the typewriter. In collaboration with writer-producer Peter S. Fischer, with whom they had previously worked on Ellery Queen and Columbo, Link and Levinson changed the sex of their protagonist from male to female and transformed the character from a good-looking, absent-minded young pedant to a middle-aged, down-to-earth widow.

Murder, She Wrote was never pitched as an American version of the Agatha Christie character Miss Marple, contrary to rumors. The show was initially offered to actress Jean Stapleton, who turned it down stating that, after nine years of playing the ditsy but well-meaning Edith Bunker on All in the Family and Archie Bunker's Place, respectively, she did not want to be tied down to another series. Doris Day was offered the part afterwards, and also declined.

Fischer, Levinson and Link thought Angela Lansbury would be perfect in the part but had not dreamed that she would be interested in a television series. Earlier, she had acted in two film adaptations of Agatha Christie's mystery novels: as the murder suspect/victim Salome in Death on the Nile (1978 film) and as the famous sleuth Miss Marple in The Mirror Crack'd (1980). When the latter film failed, the offer for Lansbury to reprise Miss Marple in three more films never materialized.[9] When she made it known she would be available if the right project came along, the trio of creators sent her the script and almost immediately, Lansbury felt she could do something with the role of Jessica Fletcher. With Murder, She Wrote debuting on Sunday, September 30, 1984, the producers were able to parlay their "mystery writer/amateur detective" premise into a 12-year hit for CBS. It also made Lansbury, known previously for her motion picture and Broadway stage work, a household name for millions of television viewers.

The title comes from Murder, She Said, which was the title of a 1961 film adaptation of Agatha Christie's Miss Marple novel 4:50 from Paddington.


The show revolves around the day-to-day life of Jessica Fletcher, a childless, widowed, retired English teacher who becomes a successful mystery writer. Despite fame and fortune, Jessica remains a resident of Cabot Cove, a cozy coastal town in Maine, and maintains her links with all of her old friends, never letting her success go to her head. Exterior shots of Cabot Cove were filmed in Mendocino, California. The fictional "Cabot Cove" name for the series' coastal town was derived from the name of an actual bay harbor inlet in Kennebunkport, Maine, located near the town's center, on the road where motels and lobster shack dives are located.

The show mostly starts with a preview of the episode's events, with Jessica stating: "Tonight On Murder, She Wrote..." Jessica invariably proves more perceptive than the official investigators, who are almost always willing to arrest the most likely suspect. By carefully piecing the clues together and asking astute questions, she always manages to trap the real murderer. Murder occurred with such regularity in her vicinity that the term "Cabot Cove syndrome" was coined to describe the constant appearance of dead bodies in remote locations. Indeed, if Cabot Cove existed in real life, it would top the FBI's national crime statistics in numerous categories, with some analysis suggesting that the homicide rate in Cabot Cove exceeds even that of the real-life murder capital of the world,.[10] Fan theories have even arose that theorize that Jessica herself is murdering these people since there is no better explanation for the sheer number of murders she encounters throughout the long run of the series besides her involvement in all of them.[11]

Jessica's relationship with law enforcement officials varies from place to place. Both sheriffs of Cabot Cove resign themselves to having her meddle in their cases. However, most detectives and police officers do not want her anywhere near their crime scenes, until her accurate deductions convince them to listen to her. Some are happy to have her assistance from the start, often because they are fans of her books. With time, she makes friends in many police departments across the U.S., as well as with a British police officer attached to Scotland Yard.

At the start of season eight, more of the stories were set in New York City with Jessica moving into an apartment there part-time in order to teach criminology.


Angela Lansbury in September 1989

By August 1988, when Lansbury expressed her weariness of her commitment, the series was expected to end in June 1990. Nevertheless, Lansbury continued in the role. By the end of the 1994–95 season, Murder, She Wrote's 11th, Lansbury was content continuing with the series, although her advancing age became a concern to the producers and the network (she had just turned 70). CBS effectively made the decision for her that autumn. After spending 11 years on Sunday, the network's longest-running weekly series (at that time) was moved to Thursday nights at 8 p.m. This put the series in direct competition with the first hour of NBC's Must See TV lineup, which had been drawing the highest ratings of the week for any network for years.

Despite protests of many of the show's fans (who believed CBS was intentionally setting the show up to fail in its new timeslot), CBS refused to budge on the new timeslot. Murder, She Wrote plummeted from eighth to 58th in the yearly ratings; the series lost nearly 6 million viewers as the audience was not willing to follow it to Thursday, which left CBS with little choice but to end Murder, She Wrote after 12 seasons in August 1996. To soften the blow, the network agreed to air the final four episodes in its original Sunday night timeslot, as well as commission four Murder, She Wrote movies over the next few years; the first was broadcast in 1997, with three more following, in 2000, 2001, and 2003.[12] Lansbury stated in May 2011 that she would like to make a comeback appearance as Jessica Fletcher.[13]However, in a 2015 interview, Lansbury squashed the idea of reprising the much beloved character stating, "I think it would be a downer. In some way, we’d have to show her as a much older woman, and I think it’s better to maintain that picture we have in our mind’s eye of her as a vigorous person. I’m still pretty vigorous, especially in the garden … but if I wanted to transform myself back into the woman I looked like then, it would be ridiculous. And I can’t do that."[14]

Abandoned reboot

Deadline Hollywood reported in October 2013 that NBC was planning a "reboot" of the series, starring Oscar winning actress Octavia Spencer as a "hospital administrator and amateur sleuth who self-publishes her first mystery novel."[15] Angela Lansbury has commented that she is not a fan of using the title, saying "I think it's a mistake to call it 'Murder, She Wrote,' because 'Murder, She Wrote' will always be about Cabot Cove and this wonderful little group of people who told those lovely stories and enjoyed a piece of that place, and also enjoyed Jessica Fletcher, who is a rare and very individual kind of person." Early on it was decided by producers that Spencer's character would not be named Jessica Fletcher, for only Lansbury could play Jessica Fletcher.[16] It was announced on January 21, 2014, that the reboot would not be going forward.[17]


Regular cast

  • Angela Lansbury as Jessica Fletcher (1984–1996; 263 episodes), a retired English teacher who, after being widowed in her early fifties, becomes a very successful mystery writer, and in one episode—the only one in which Jessica does not appear—as her cousin Emma MacGill, who solves the case.
  • William Windom as Dr. Seth Hazlitt (1985–1996; 49 episodes), the local doctor of Cabot Cove and one of Fletcher's best friends and most intrepid supporters. There is a hint that Dr. Hazlitt may want to be more than a platonic friend but this possibility was never explored. In the season one finale Windom had played Sam Breen, a lawyer who jointly murdered the victim in that episode.
  • Tom Bosley as Sheriff Amos Tupper (1984–1988; 19 episodes), Cabot Cove's sheriff at the start of the series. Tupper later retires and goes to live with his sister.
  • Ron Masak as Sheriff Mort Metzger (1988–1996; 38 episodes), a former NYPD officer who takes Tupper's place as sheriff in the mistaken belief that he would be living in a more peaceful place. In one earlier season episode, Masak played a cheap store owner in New York City who was in trouble with the law and was trying to get out of trouble by selling his business and also played a police officer in the first season, investigating the murder of an author.
  • Louis Herthum joined the cast in 1991 as Deputy Andy Broom, appearing in 25 episodes of the show's final five seasons.

Recurring cast

  • Michael Horton as Grady Fletcher (1984–1995; 11 episodes), Jessica's not-so-lucky favorite nephew, who (through no fault of his own) always seems to get in trouble with the law. After many romantic disasters, he gets married later in the series. In real life, Horton is married to actress Debbie Zipp, who played Grady's eventual wife, Donna Mayberry. The two were married before working together on Murder, She Wrote.
  • Jerry Orbach as Harry McGraw (1985–1991; 6 episodes), an old-school private investigator who becomes friends with Jessica. Orbach was popular enough to garner his own, short-lived spinoff series in 1987, The Law & Harry McGraw.
  • Len Cariou as Michael Hagarty (1985–1992; 7 episodes), a British MI5 agent who would appear when Jessica least expected him to drag her into a dangerous case. Cariou had previously starred with Lansbury on Broadway in Sweeney Todd: The Demon Barber of Fleet Street as the titular character.
  • Richard Paul as Sam Booth (1986–1991; 7 episodes), the genial, ineffectual mayor of Cabot Cove whose main campaign promise is that he will do nothing.
  • Julie Adams as Eve Simpson (1987–1993; 10 episodes), the Cabot Cove realtor with a great love for men, both single and married, and for gossiping.
  • Ruth Roman as Loretta Speigel (1987–1989; 3 episodes), Cabot Cove's lovelorn hairdresser, also an inveterate gossip.
  • Keith Michell as Dennis Stanton (1988–1993; 9 episodes), a former jewel thief turned insurance claims investigator, who always solves his cases using unusual methods, and often sends a copy of the story to Fletcher afterwards. Many episodes starring Michell do not involve Fletcher or any other main or recurring character, and usually begin with her introducing the story to the audience invoking the fourth wall.
  • Wayne Rogers as Charlie Garrett (1993–1995; 5 episodes), a disreputable private investigator who usually gets into trouble and needs Jessica's help.
  • Claude Akins as Ethan Cragg (1984; 4 episodes), Jessica's fisherman friend.

Guest stars


Crossover with Magnum, P.I.

The episode "Magnum on Ice" concludes a crossover that begins on the Magnum, P.I. episode "Novel Connection" in which Jessica comes to Hawaii to investigate an attempt to murder Robin Masters' guests, then tries to clear Magnum when he's accused of killing the hitman.

Awards and nominations

Over its twelve-year run Murder, She Wrote received numerous award nominations. Angela Lansbury herself holds the record for the most Emmy nominations for outstanding lead actress in a drama series with twelve, one for each season. She never won, which is also a record.

Group Award Year(s) Result
Emmy Awards Outstanding Lead Actress in a Drama Series (Angela Lansbury) 1985–1996 Nominated
Outstanding Music Composition for a Series (John Addison) 1985[18] Won
Outstanding Music Composition for a Series (Bruce Babcock) 1993, 1995 Nominated
Outstanding Costume Design for a Series (Alfred E. Lehman) 1986[18] Won
Golden Globe Awards Best TV Series – Drama 1985, 1986 Won
Best TV Series – Drama 1987–1990 Nominated
Best Performance by an Actress in a TV Series – Drama (Angela Lansbury) 1985, 1987, 1990 & 1992 Won
Best Performance by an Actress in a TV Series – Drama (Angela Lansbury) 1986, 1988, 1989, 1991, 1993 & 1995 Nominated
Edgar Awards Best Episode of a TV Series ("Deadly Lady") 1985 Won
Best Episode of a TV Series ("The Dead File") 1993 Nominated
Screen Actors Guild Awards Best Performance by an Actress in a TV Series – Drama (Angela Lansbury) 1995 Nominated

U.S. television ratings

Murder, She Wrote maintained extremely high ratings finishing in the top 15 of shows for eleven of its 12 seasons (eight of which it was in the top 10), even well into its late seasons. At the beginning of its 12th season in 1995, CBS moved the show from its extremely popular Sunday night time slot to Thursday night forcing it to compete with NBC's Must See TV line up, and as a result the ratings plummeted. The show rated as the following:

Television ratings
Season Episodes Season premiere Season finale TV season Rank Households
1 22 September 30, 1984 April 21, 1985 1984–85 #8[19] 17.06
2 22 September 29, 1985 May 18, 1986 1985–86 #3[20] 21.73
3 22 September 28, 1986 May 10, 1987 1986–87 #4[21] 22.19
4 22 September 20, 1987 May 8, 1988 1987–88 #4[22] 22.19
5 22 October 23, 1988 May 21, 1989 1988–89 #8[23] 17.98
6 22 September 24, 1989 May 20, 1990 1989–90 #13[24] 16.30
7 22 September 16, 1990 May 12, 1991 1990–91 #12[25] 15.26
8 22 September 15, 1991 May 17, 1992 1991–92 #8[26] 15.56
9 22 September 20, 1992 May 16, 1993 1992–93 #5[27] 16.30
10 21 September 12, 1993 May 22, 1994 1993–94 #11[28] 15.07
11 21 September 25, 1994 May 14, 1995 1994–95 #8[29] 14.82
12 24 September 21, 1995 May 19, 1996 1995–96 #58[30] 9.50

Broadcast history

  • Sunday at 8:00-9:00 pm on CBS - September 30, 1984 – May 14, 1995; January 7, 1996; April 25, 1996 – May 19, 1996
  • Sunday at 9:00-10:00 pm on CBS - March 10, 1985
  • Thursday at 8:00-9:00 pm on CBS - September 21, 1995 – April 4, 1996

International syndication

Since its original run on CBS, Murder, She Wrote has been syndicated in many countries around the world.

Country Channel(s) Title Literal translation Language
Australia Nine Network,
Network Ten,
Seven Network,
111 Greats,
FOX Classics
Murder, She Wrote English
Austria ORF,
Puls 4
Mord ist ihr Hobby Murder Is Her Hobby German dubbed
Belgium: Flanders VTM,
Murder, She Wrote English,
Dutch subtitles
Belgium: Wallonia La Une Arabesque French dubbed
Brazil Universal Channel Assassinato por Escrito Written Murder Portuguese dubbed
Bulgaria Fox Crime,
AXN White
Убийство по сценарий Murder by Script Bulgarian dubbed, Bulgarian subtitles
Canada Vision TV Murder, She Wrote English
Canada: Quebec TQS Elle écrit au meurtre She Writes "Murder!" French dubbed
Chile Canal 13 Reportera del crimen Crime Reporter Spanish dubbed
Croatia HRT Ubojstvo, napisala je Murder, She Wrote English,
Croatian subtitles
Czech Republic Nova,
To je vražda, napsala That Is Murder, She Wrote Czech dubbed
Denmark DR 2 Hun så et mord She Saw a Murder English,
Danish subtitles
Estonia TV3 Mõrv sai teoks Murder Became True English,
Estonian subtitles
Finland YLE TV1,
MTV3 Sarja
Murhasta tuli totta Murder Became True English,
Finnish subtitles
France La Cinq,
TV Breizh, TMC
Arabesque Arabesque French dubbed
Germany ARD,
Super RTL,
Sat.1 Gold,
TNT Serie,
kabel eins,
Immer, wenn sie Krimis schrieb;
Mord ist ihr Hobby
Whenever She Wrote Crime Novels;
Murder is Her Hobby
German dubbed, original English version
Greece Star Channel Η συγγραφέας ντετέκτιβ The Detective Writer English,
Greek subtitles
Hungary Viasat 3 Gyilkos sorok Murderous Lines Hungarian dubbed
Ireland RTÉ One Murder, She Wrote English
Israel HOT
Israel 10
רצח במשיכת קולמוס Murder With a Stroke of Pen English,
Hebrew subtitles
Italy Rai Uno,
Fox Crime,
Rai Due
Rete 4
La signora in giallo The Lady in Yellow[31] Italian dubbed
Japan NHK,
Mystery Channel,
LaLa TV,
Chiba TV,
Gunma TV
Jessica obasan no jikenbo
Auntie Jessica's Case Files Japanese dubbed
Kuwait KTV 2 Murder, She Wrote English,
Arabic subtitles
Latvia LTV
Fox Crime
Noziegumam pa pēdām On the Trail of the Crime Latvian dubbed
Lithuania TV3 Džesika Flečer Jessica Fletcher Lithuanian dubbed
Macedonia Fox Crime Убиство, таа напиша Murder, She Wrote English,
Macedonian subtitles
Mexico 4TV (former),
Universal Channel (former),
FX Latin America (current)
La reportera del crimen The Crime Reporter Spanish dubbed
Netherlands RTL 8,
13th Street Universal
Murder, She Wrote English,
Dutch subtitles
New Zealand TV One,
Murder, She Wrote English
Norway TV3,
Jessica Fletcher Jessica Fletcher English,
Norwegian subtitles
Pakistan Pakistan Television,
Murder, She Wrote English
Philippines GMA Network,
Murder, She Wrote English
Poland 13th Street,
AXN Crime
Napisała: Morderstwo Murder, She Wrote English,
Polish voice-over translation
Portugal RTP 1,
Crime, Disse Ela Crime, She Said English,
Portuguese subtitles
Romania Pro Cinema,
TVR 2,
AXN Crime
Verdict: Crimă Verdict: Murder English,
Romanian subtitles
Russia NTV,
Она написала убийство Murder, She Wrote Russian dubbed
Serbia FOX Crime Pisac i detektiv A Writer and a Detective English,
Serbian subtitles
Slovakia Markíza To je vražda, napísala Murder, She Wrote Slovak dubbed
Slovenia RTVSLO
Kanal A
FOX Crime
TV3 Slovenia
Umor, je napisala Murder, She Wrote English,
Slovene subtitles
South Africa TV1 Murder, She Wrote English
South Korea MBC 제시카의 추리 극장
Jessica-eui Churi Geukjang
Jessica's Detective Theatre Korean dubbed
Spain TVE,
Calle 13,
Antena 3
Se ha escrito un crimen A Crime Has Been Written Spanish dubbed
Spain: Catalonia TV3 S'ha escrit un crim A Crime Has Been Written Catalan dubbed
Spain: Galicia TVG Escribiuse un crime A Crime Has Been Written Galician dubbed
Sweden TV3,
TV4 Guld
Mord och inga visor Murder and No Melodies[32] English,
Swedish subtitles
Turkey TRT 1,
Star TV,
Kanal D
TNT Türkiye
Cinayet Dosyası Murder File Turkish dubbed
Ukraine СТБ Вона написала вбивство Murder, She Wrote Ukrainian dubbed
United Kingdom ITV,
Murder, She Wrote English
United States Hallmark Movie Channel,
TV Land
Murder, She Wrote English
Uruguay Monte Carlo Televisión Reportera del crimen Crime Reporter Spanish dubbed
Venezuela Televen Reportera del crimen Crime Reporter Spanish dubbed
Argentina - Reportera del crimen Crime Reporter Spanish dubbed


In 1985, Warren Company released a Murder, She Wrote board game. In the game, one player takes the hidden role of a killer and the other players try to determine which player is the killer through deduction. The killer is successful if he or she can kill five of the characters on the game-board and escape, while the detective players win by correctly deducing the identity of the killer.

In December 2009, casual game developer and publisher Legacy Interactive, under license with Universal Pictures Digital Platforms Group (UPDPG), announced the release a PC and Macintosh video game based on the television series. In the game, players help Jessica Fletcher to solve five unusual murders.[33] A sequel, Murder She Wrote 2, was launched by Legacy Interactive in November 2012.



  1. ^ Silden, Isobel (August 17, 1989). "'"It's No Crime When Yesterday's Stars Get Into 'Murder. The Los Angeles Times. Retrieved October 20, 2010. 
  2. ^ Weinstein, Steve (May 21, 1994). "Television: After 10 years and more than 200 corpses, no one has been able to knock off 'Murder, She Wrote,' powered by you-know-who.". The Los Angeles Times. Retrieved October 20, 2010. 
  3. ^ Haithman, Diane (October 20, 1990). "TV: The grind of a weekly hour series is too much, but a half-hour show is something else.". The Los Angeles Times. Retrieved October 20, 2010. 
  4. ^ Harmetz, Aljean (October 27, 1985). "Angela Lansbury's unlikely sleuth has staying power". The New York Times. Retrieved August 20, 2010. 
  5. ^ Weinraub, Bernard (December 1, 1991). "TELEVISION; Angela Lansbury Has a Hit. She Wants Respect". The New York Times. Retrieved August 20, 2010. 
  6. ^ Du Brow, Rick (May 24, 1995). "Television: CBS 'youth' move upsets Angela Lansbury after her show's 11 years as a Sunday evening staple.". The Los Angeles Times. Retrieved October 20, 2010. 
  7. ^ E3 2009: Murder, She Wrote game coming to the PC,, June 8, 2009; retrieved January 14, 2010.
  8. ^ "First screenshots of Murder, She Wrote". November 17, 2011. Retrieved May 14, 2012. 
  9. ^ Brunsdale, Mitzi M., Icons of Mystery and Crime Detection: From Sleuths to Superheroes. Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO,LLC (2010), p. 307
  10. ^ "Murder She Wrote" location named as Murder Capital of World
  11. ^ "TV Conspiracy Theory: Was Angela Lansbury Actually a Serial Killer on ‘Murder She Wrote’?"
  12. ^ "Movies Keep `Murder, She Wrote' Alive". Chicago Tribune. August 5, 1997. Retrieved October 20, 2010. 
  13. ^ Murder, She Wrote' Angela Lansbury Return"'". Entertainment Weekly. May 13, 2011. Retrieved February 22, 2012. 
  14. ^
  15. ^ Andreeva, Nellie (Oct 24, 2013). "NBC To Reboot ‘Murder, She Wrote’ With Octavia Spencer Starring, Alex Cunningham Writing And David Janollari Producing". Retrieved 26 October 2013. 
  16. ^ "Angela Lansbury is not happy with 'Murder, She Wrote' remake". Los Angeles Times. November 11, 2013. 
  17. ^ Andreeva, Nellie (January 21, 2014). "NBC’s ‘Murder She Wrote’ Reboot Not Going Forward, Could Be Revisited In The Future". Deadline Hollywood. Retrieved January 21, 2014. 
  18. ^ a b Du Brow, Rick (September 13, 1991). "'"Television: Angela Lansbury is miffed that her top-rated series, a CBS bulwark, is routinely ignored at Emmy time: 'The industry is barely aware the show exists.. The Los Angeles Times. Retrieved October 20, 2010. 
  19. ^ "TV Ratings: 1984-1985". Retrieved May 14, 2012. 
  20. ^ "TV Ratings: 1985-1986". Retrieved May 14, 2012. 
  21. ^ "TV Ratings: 1986-1987". Retrieved May 14, 2012. 
  22. ^ "TV Ratings: 1987-1988". July 26, 2002. Retrieved May 14, 2012. 
  23. ^ "TV Ratings: 1988-1989". Retrieved May 14, 2012. 
  24. ^ "TV Ratings: 1989-1990". Retrieved May 14, 2012. 
  25. ^ "TV Ratings: 1990-1991". Retrieved May 14, 2012. 
  26. ^ "TV Ratings: 1991-1992". Retrieved May 14, 2012. 
  27. ^ "TV Ratings: 1992-1993". Retrieved May 14, 2012. 
  28. ^ "TV Ratings: 1989-1990". Retrieved May 14, 2012. 
  29. ^ "TV Ratings: 1994-1995". Retrieved May 14, 2012. 
  30. ^ "TV Ratings: 1995-1996". Retrieved May 14, 2012. 
  31. ^ In Italian, the "yellow genre" expression is equivalent to crime fiction from the 1930s when an Italian publisher, Arnoldo Mondadori Editore, published a series of crime fiction books using a yellow cover.
  32. ^ While "Murder and No Melodies" is the literal translation, the translation is a word play, alluding to the Swedish idiom "Ord och inga visor" ("Words and no melodies"), with the idiomatic meaning "plain speaking" or "hard, honest words".
  33. ^ "" (Press release). Legacy Interactive. December 18, 2009. Retrieved May 14, 2012. 

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